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The Problem of Evil

Peter van Inwagen

in The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Religion

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
April 2005
ISBN:
9780195138092
eISBN:
9780199835348
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195138090.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

In this chapter, the problem of evil is understood in a narrow, intellectual sense: as the problem of how a theist can best reply to various arguments for the non-existence of God that are based on ... More


Alternative Possibilities and Primary Agency

Katherin A. Rogers

in Anselm on Freedom

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199231676
eISBN:
9780191716089
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199231676.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion, General

Anselm defends the ‘Principle of Alternative Possibilities’ with regard to created agency, although in his system it is aseity, self-causation, that is most important. His theory presents a response ... More


The Free Will Defense

Hugh J. McCann

in Molinism: The Contemporary Debate

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199590629
eISBN:
9780191731280
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199590629.003.0016
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter is a critique of views that seek to resolve the problem of moral evil by holding that such evil is owing to exercises of human freedom that escape God's control as creator. It is argued ... More


Paradise Lost: Pre-Existence, the Fall, and the Origin of Evil

Mark S. M. Scott

in Journey Back to God: Origen on the Problem of Evil

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199841141
eISBN:
9780199949809
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199841141.003.0004
Subject:
Religion, Early Christian Studies

The third chapter analyzes Origen's account of the origin of evil. Origen explains the rise of evil in terms of the pre-existent fall of rational minds in the precosmic realm, which occurs in the ... More


Compatibilism and the Free Will Defense

Michael Almeida

in Free Will and Classical Theism: The Significance of Freedom in Perfect Being Theology

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2016
ISBN:
9780190611200
eISBN:
9780190611224
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190611200.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Religion

There’s a longstanding and widely endorsed argument that the free will defense is inconsistent with compatibilist views of free will. Indeed, Alvin Plantinga—the originator of the contemporary free ... More


There is no Free-Will Defense

James P. Sterba

in Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion Volume 8

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780198806967
eISBN:
9780191844461
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198806967.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

This paper argues that there is no Free-Will Defense for the degree and amount of moral evil in our world. It denies that God’s creating our world with the degree and amount of moral evil that ... More


Applying the Analogies: Permission and Risk; Benefit Production and Harm Avoidance

Vince R. Vitale

in Non-Identity Theodicy: A Grace-Based Response to the Problem of Evil

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9780198864226
eISBN:
9780191896392
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198864226.003.0004
Subject:
Religion, Theology

Using an ethical framework constructed out of the two variables of whether an agent causes, permits, or risks horrendous evils, and whether she does so in order to bestow pure benefit or in order to ... More


The Fourth Meditation Theodicy

C. P. Ragland

in The Will to Reason: Theodicy and Freedom in Descartes

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
June 2016
ISBN:
9780190264451
eISBN:
9780190264475
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190264451.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

In the Fourth Meditation, human error seems to entail that—directly contrary to the results of the Third Meditation—our creator cannot be all-perfect and non-deceiving. This “problem of error” (a ... More


Augustine on Evil

Peter King

in Evil: A History

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780199915453
eISBN:
9780190248383
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199915453.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Augustine’s account of evil has influenced most later thinkers in the western tradition. He argues for three central theses: (a) evil is the lack of some positive feature that ought to be present, a ... More


High Fall Theodicy

Vince R. Vitale

in Non-Identity Theodicy: A Grace-Based Response to the Problem of Evil

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9780198864226
eISBN:
9780191896392
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198864226.003.0005
Subject:
Religion, Theology

This chapter assesses the theodicies identified in the previous chapter as structurally promising (i.e. as depicting God as ethically in the clear on the assumption that the explanatory story told by ... More


Non-Identity Theodicy: A Grace-Based Response to the Problem of Evil

Vince R. Vitale

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9780198864226
eISBN:
9780191896392
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198864226.001.0001
Subject:
Religion, Theology

This book develops Non-Identity Theodicy as an original response to the problem of evil. It begins by recognizing that horrendous evils pose distinctive challenges for belief in God. To home in on ... More


Unrestricted Actualization and Perfect Worlds: A Reply to Langtry

Michael Almeida

in Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion Volume 9

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
October 2019
ISBN:
9780198845492
eISBN:
9780191880698
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198845492.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

God unrestrictedly actualizes a state of affairs just in case God predicts that some state of affairs obtains. Unrestricted actualization ensures, inter alia, that, necessarily, God can actualize a ... More


Introduction: The Problem of Horrendous Evils

Vince R. Vitale

in Non-Identity Theodicy: A Grace-Based Response to the Problem of Evil

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9780198864226
eISBN:
9780191896392
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198864226.003.0001
Subject:
Religion, Theology

This chapter introduces the problem of evil and then the more specific problem of horrendous evil (that is, the argument that the existence of horrendous evils makes the existence of God impossible ... More


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