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Focal Points and Legislative Decision-Making: Six Case Studies

Nils Ringe

in Who Decides, and How?: Preferences, Uncertainty, and Policy Choice in the European Parliament

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199572557
eISBN:
9780191722431
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199572557.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics, European Union

Chapter 5 examines the role of focal points as mechanisms of information provision by analyzing a series of legislative proposals as case studies. It draws on interviews with EU officials and the ... More


Focal Points as Mechanisms for Policy Choice

Nils Ringe

in Who Decides, and How?: Preferences, Uncertainty, and Policy Choice in the European Parliament

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199572557
eISBN:
9780191722431
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199572557.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics, European Union

Chapter 4 revisits the book's theoretical framework by questioning the assumption of the perceived preference coherence model that nonexpert MEPs blindly adopt the policy positions of ‘their’ expert ... More


Communication, Coordinated Action, and Focal Points in Groups: From Dating Couples to Emergency Responders

Andrea B. Hollingshead

in Then A Miracle Occurs: Focusing on Behavior in Social Psychological Theory and Research

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195377798
eISBN:
9780199864522
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195377798.003.0020
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology, Clinical Psychology

One of the most important forms of social behavior is communication. In this chapter, the author discusses the importance of communication, which she defines broadly as involving both verbal and ... More


Who Decides, and How?: Preferences, Uncertainty, and Policy Choice in the European Parliament

Nils Ringe

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199572557
eISBN:
9780191722431
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199572557.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics, European Union

How do individual legislators in the European Parliament (EP) make decisions? Despite a flourishing literature on the European Union's only directly elected institution, we know surprisingly little ... More


The Impact of Active Leverage I: Making Political Systems More Competitive, 1994–8

Milada Anna Vachudova

in Europe Undivided: Democracy, Leverage, and Integration After Communism

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
April 2005
ISBN:
9780199241194
eISBN:
9780191602382
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199241198.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, European Union

Once the EU developed its active leverage, noncompliance with EU membership requirements became visible and costly for governments in candidate states. This chapter illustrates the effectiveness of ... More


Center of Gravity

Antulio J. Echevarria II

in Clausewitz and Contemporary War

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199231911
eISBN:
9780191716171
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199231911.003.0012
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This chapter discusses Clausewitz's concept of centre of gravity, one of his most misunderstood ideas. The concept, as Clausewitz introduced it, is closer to the idea of a focal point, rather than a ... More


Bargaining

Ken Binmore

in Natural Justice

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780195178111
eISBN:
9780199783670
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195178111.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

This chapter surveys the relevant bargaining theory, namely the Nash bargaining solution, the utilitarian bargaining solution, and the egalitarian bargaining solution. The importance of how ... More


The Social Ecology of Meaning

Robin Clark

in Meaningful Games: Exploring Language with Game Theory

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262016179
eISBN:
9780262298742
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016179.003.0009
Subject:
Linguistics, Applied Linguistics and Pedagogy

This chapter examines the problem of lexical content given a context. It uses the notion of focal points to develop a system of social coordination of reference. It argues that these focal points are ... More


Randomization in Decision-Making

ROBERT V. DODGE

in Schelling's Game Theory: How to Make Decisions

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199857203
eISBN:
9780199932597
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199857203.003.0020
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Behavioural Economics

This chapter considers randomization, beginning with its history as “fairness” in making decisions. It then examines “mixed strategies” and von Neumann's Minimax Theorem. A segment from Poe's The ... More


The Keplerian Turn and its Technical Background

A. Mark Smith

in From Sight to Light: The Passage from Ancient to Modern Optics

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226174761
eISBN:
9780226174938
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226174938.003.0008
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter examines the analytic and epistemological turn represented by Kepler’s account of retinal imaging. It starts with a look at the immediate context of that account in the optical work of ... More


Vicarious Thinking

ROBERT V. DODGE

in Schelling's Game Theory: How to Make Decisions

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199857203
eISBN:
9780199932597
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199857203.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Behavioural Economics

The essential skill needed for strategic thinking and the basis of game theory involves vicarious thinking. One must think as the other is thinking to make a strategic decision and the other is ... More


Law and Economics

Kaushik Basu

in An Economist in the Real World: The Art of Policymaking in India

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780262029629
eISBN:
9780262331678
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029629.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, South and East Asia

Law and economics receives less attention in developing and emerging economies. But the law is too important for economic policy and performance to be left to the charge solely of lawyers. The ... More


National Focal Points for R2P: Institutionalizing the Responsibility to Prevent

Mónica Serrano

in The Responsibility to Prevent: Overcoming the Challenges of Atrocity Prevention

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2015
ISBN:
9780198717782
eISBN:
9780191787294
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198717782.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter starts by examining the normative evolution of the responsibility to protect (R2P), and the logic behind the creation of national focal points. The second section reflects on the two ... More


Lumpy Goals, Segmented Resources

Lee Anne Fennell

in Slices and Lumps: Division and Aggregation in Law and Life

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2020
ISBN:
9780226650265
eISBN:
9780226650432
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226650432.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law

Chapter 3 extends the theme of assembling cooperation to collective action problems more broadly, whether saving a fishery from collapse or collecting funds to cure a disease. The chapter explains ... More


The Conventions of a Human Language

Daniel Cloud

in The Domestication of Language: Cultural Evolution and the Uniqueness of the Human Animal

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231167925
eISBN:
9780231538282
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231167925.003.0002
Subject:
Linguistics, Psycholinguistics / Neurolinguistics / Cognitive Linguistics

This chapter examines David Lewis' book Convention, which was an explicit response to W. V. Quine's “Truth by Convention” as well as other things he wrote on the so-called conventions of our language ... More


Complex Motivic Analysis

Brent Auerbach

in Musical Motives: A Theory and Method for Analyzing Shape in Music

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780197526026
eISBN:
9780197526057
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197526026.003.0009
Subject:
Music, Theory, Analysis, Composition

Chapter 7 establishes the rules and guidelines for complex motivic analysis (CMA). CMA is the more advanced mode of motivic analysis, which centers around the activity of a larger, network-type ... More


The Design of Multidimensional Sound Interfaces

Michael Cohen and Elizabeth M. Wenzel

in Virtual Environments and Advanced Interface Design

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195075557
eISBN:
9780197560310
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195075557.003.0017
Subject:
Computer Science, Human-Computer Interaction

Early computer terminals allowed only textual I/O. Because the user read and wrote vectors of character strings, this mode of I/O (character-based user interface, or “CUI”) could be thought of as ... More


The Puzzle of Inefficacy

Tristram McPherson

in Philosophy and Climate Change

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
April 2021
ISBN:
9780198796282
eISBN:
9780191918933
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198796282.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

We appear to have reasons to act in light of the relationship between our choices and the horrors of factory farming or the escalating bad effects of climate change, even if we are unable to mitigate ... More


Scanlon’s Promising Proposal and the Right Kind of Reasons to Believe1

Mark van Roojen

in Oxford Studies in Normative Ethics: Volume 3

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199685905
eISBN:
9780191765803
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199685905.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

T. M. Scanlon suggests that the binding nature of promises itself plays a role in allowing a promisee rationally to expect follow through even while that binding nature itself depends on the ... More


CMA Narrative Archetypes

Brent Auerbach

in Musical Motives: A Theory and Method for Analyzing Shape in Music

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780197526026
eISBN:
9780197526057
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197526026.003.0008
Subject:
Music, Theory, Analysis, Composition

This Interlude on the topic of narrative, the second of two, serves as the bridge between the sections on basic motivic analysis (BMA) and complex motivic analysis (CMA). Chapter 7, which formally ... More


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