*G. Barr, R. Devenish, R. Walczak, and T. Weidberg*

- Published in print:
- 2016
- Published Online:
- March 2016
- ISBN:
- 9780198748557
- eISBN:
- 9780191811203
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198748557.003.0010
- Subject:
- Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter covers the diverse physical effects that have been measured in meson systems over the past half-century, including the surprising discovery of CP violation and its subsequent study. ...
More

This chapter covers the diverse physical effects that have been measured in meson systems over the past half-century, including the surprising discovery of CP violation and its subsequent study. Flavour oscillations and regeneration are described for the kaon system, which is used to formulate the mathematical description of the combined mixing and decay of the meson states. The observation of neutral meson mixing, which has now been achieved in all four of the known neutral meson systems, is described using box diagrams. The chapter then extensively discusses the phenomenon of CP violation, how it was discovered, the conditions under which it manifests itself in experimentally accessible situations, and how the Kobayashi–Maskawa formalism incorporates it into the standard model. The different origins of CP violation are considered, including mixing and direct CP violation. CP violation studies from LHCb and B-factories are reviewed. CP violation is related to the unitarity triangle.Less

This chapter covers the diverse physical effects that have been measured in meson systems over the past half-century, including the surprising discovery of *CP* violation and its subsequent study. Flavour oscillations and regeneration are described for the kaon system, which is used to formulate the mathematical description of the combined mixing and decay of the meson states. The observation of neutral meson mixing, which has now been achieved in all four of the known neutral meson systems, is described using box diagrams. The chapter then extensively discusses the phenomenon of *CP* violation, how it was discovered, the conditions under which it manifests itself in experimentally accessible situations, and how the Kobayashi–Maskawa formalism incorporates it into the standard model. The different origins of *CP* violation are considered, including mixing and direct *CP* violation. *CP* violation studies from LHCb and B-factories are reviewed. *CP* violation is related to the unitarity triangle.

*Giles Barr, Robin Devenish, Roman Walczak, and Tony Weidberg*

- Published in print:
- 2016
- Published Online:
- March 2016
- ISBN:
- 9780198748557
- eISBN:
- 9780191811203
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198748557.001.0001
- Subject:
- Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This book gives a modern introduction to particle physics. The main mathematical tools required for the rest of the book are developed in Chapter 2. A quantitative introduction to accelerator physics ...
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This book gives a modern introduction to particle physics. The main mathematical tools required for the rest of the book are developed in Chapter 2. A quantitative introduction to accelerator physics is presented in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 covers detector physics, with an emphasis on fundamental physical principles. Chapter 5 covers the static quark model, with applications to light mesons and baryons as well as heavier states containing charm and beauty quarks. Chapter 6 introduces relativistic quantum mechanics and uses spinors to relate Lorentz invariance to the Dirac equation. Chapter 7 covers the basics of the electroweak theory based on broken SU(2) × U(1) symmetry. Chapter 8 reviews some of the key experiments that led to the development of the electroweak theory. Chapter 9 explains the importance of deep inelastic scattering data for providing direct evidence for the existence of quarks. It also gives a brief introduction to quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Chapter 10 considers flavour oscillations in the quark sector and then discusses the evidence for CP violation. Chapter 11 examines the theory of neutrino oscillations as well as the evidence for these oscillations. Chapter 12 gives an elementary introduction to the Higgs mechanism as well as a careful explanation of the experimental evidence for the existence of a Higgs boson. Chapter 13 looks at LHC physics and explains how searches for Beyond the Standard Model Physics are performed. It concludes with a discussion of the evidence for dark matter and dark energy.Less

This book gives a modern introduction to particle physics. The main mathematical tools required for the rest of the book are developed in Chapter 2. A quantitative introduction to accelerator physics is presented in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 covers detector physics, with an emphasis on fundamental physical principles. Chapter 5 covers the static quark model, with applications to light mesons and baryons as well as heavier states containing charm and beauty quarks. Chapter 6 introduces relativistic quantum mechanics and uses spinors to relate Lorentz invariance to the Dirac equation. Chapter 7 covers the basics of the electroweak theory based on broken SU(2) × U(1) symmetry. Chapter 8 reviews some of the key experiments that led to the development of the electroweak theory. Chapter 9 explains the importance of deep inelastic scattering data for providing direct evidence for the existence of quarks. It also gives a brief introduction to quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Chapter 10 considers flavour oscillations in the quark sector and then discusses the evidence for *CP* violation. Chapter 11 examines the theory of neutrino oscillations as well as the evidence for these oscillations. Chapter 12 gives an elementary introduction to the Higgs mechanism as well as a careful explanation of the experimental evidence for the existence of a Higgs boson. Chapter 13 looks at LHC physics and explains how searches for Beyond the Standard Model Physics are performed. It concludes with a discussion of the evidence for dark matter and dark energy.