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Pendulum Democracy: The Winner Takes All

Frank Hendriks

in Vital Democracy: A Theory of Democracy in Action

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199572786
eISBN:
9780191722370
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199572786.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics, Political Theory

Pendulum democracy refers to the model of democracy in which political power alternates between two competing political parties or protagonists. Power follows the movement of the pendulum, and the ... More


Eye Movements and Scene Memory

John M. Henderson

in Visual Memory

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195305487
eISBN:
9780199894260
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195305487.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter reviews the evidence supporting the view that representations are retained and combined across eye movements and over extended time. In particular, it considers representations that are ... More


What Could Work Better: Cooperation betwen Two Species

R. Ford Denison

in Darwinian Agriculture: How Understanding Evolution Can Improve Agriculture

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691139500
eISBN:
9781400842810
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691139500.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter examines cooperation between two species and how cooperation among related individuals of one species can also help maintain cooperation between species. It presents some examples of ... More


Influences on Ecosystem Function IV: Nitrogen Biogeochemistry

Frederic H. Wagner

in Yellowstone's Destabilized Ecosystem: Elk Effects, Science, and Policy Conflict

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195148213
eISBN:
9780199790449
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195148213.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Ungulate grazing, primarily by elk and bison, accelerates nitrogen cycling within the northern-range system by consumption, digestion, excretion, and subsequent mineralization. Ungulate use does not ... More


The interlinked approach to development of attention and action

Janette Atkinson

in The Developing Visual Brain

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198525998
eISBN:
9780191712395
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525998.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter considers how attention systems select information, in particular for the visual guidance of action. It reviews the control of orienting responses by neural systems, in particular the ... More


The Development and Evaluation of Tools for Creativity

Steven M. Smith, Andruid Kerne, Eunyee Koh, and Jami Shah

in Tools for Innovation

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195381634
eISBN:
9780199870264
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195381634.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

An approach that can be taken for developing tools that are rooted in a scientific understanding of creative cognition is outlined, and described for one such tool, combinFormation. Cognitive ... More


Mechanisms of Surface Completion: Perceptual Filling-In of Texture

Lothar Spillmann and Peter De Weerd

in Filling-In: From Perceptual Completion to Cortical Reorganization

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195140132
eISBN:
9780199865307
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195140132.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter discusses the mechanisms of texture filling-in. With prolonged fixation, targets defined by texture contrast rapidly fade and disappear into the background in a way similar to that of ... More


Tariff Philosophy

Alok Kumar and Sushanta K. Chatterjee

in Electricity Sector in India: Policy and Regulation

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780198082279
eISBN:
9780199082063
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198082279.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter provides a historical perspective on tariff regulation in the electricity sector in India. It describes how the responsibility of tariff fixation has moved from the government or ... More


Visual Memory

Nigel Daw

in How Vision Works: The Physiological Mechanisms Behind What We See

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199751617
eISBN:
9780199932375
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199751617.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

Visual sensory memory lasts for the duration of the response in the retina. Visual short-term memory may comprise up to 10 objects during the first second, and drops to 4 after that. Only a few items ... More


Control of Eye Movements

Nigel Daw

in How Vision Works: The Physiological Mechanisms Behind What We See

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199751617
eISBN:
9780199932375
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199751617.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

There are eye movements to place objects of interest onto the fovea (saccades and vergence), and to keep it there (smooth pursuit, fixation, optokinetic, and vestibular). Signals converge onto the ... More


Two Distinct Stages of Memory Consolidation

Howard Eichenbaum

in The Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory: An Introduction

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199778614
eISBN:
9780199932962
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199778614.003.0012
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

This chapter describes how modern research has distinguished between two kinds of consolidation: a short-term cellular fixation process and a long-lasting reorganization process. It reviews the ... More


Self-Portrait of Percy Grainger

Malcolm Gillies, David Pear, and Mark Carroll (eds)

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195305371
eISBN:
9780199863624
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195305371.001.0001
Subject:
Music, History, Western

In his later years Percy Grainger (1882-1961) penned over twenty personal sketches, intending them as the basis of an autobiography. This book draws a vivid portrait of the Australian–American ... More


Salary Fixation of the Higher Civil Service

S.R. Maheshwari

in Public Administration in India: The Higher Civil Service

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
October 2012
ISBN:
9780195683769
eISBN:
9780199080373
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195683769.003.0015
Subject:
Political Science, Indian Politics

This chapter examines salary fixation in the higher civil service in India. The Pay Commissions is the agency responsible for salary fixation, which the government sets up from time to time. These ... More


Belief, Confidence, and the Method of Science

Christopher Hookway

in Truth, Rationality, and Pragmatism: Themes from Peirce

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199256587
eISBN:
9780191597718
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199256586.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

A discussion of Peirce's claim that belief has no place in science and his views of the different roles of rational self‐control in dealing with scientific matters and with ‘vital questions’. This ... More


The Moving Tablet of the Eye: The origins of modern eye movement research

Nicholas Wade and Benjamin Tatler

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198566175
eISBN:
9780191584954
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198566175.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Eye movements are a vital part of our interaction with the world. They play a pivotal role in perception, cognition, and education. Research in this field is now proceeding at a considerable pace and ... More


Group Creativity: Innovation through Collaboration

Paul B. Paulus and Bernard A. Nijstad (eds)

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195147308
eISBN:
9780199893720
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195147308.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Creativity often leads to the development of original ideas that are useful or influential, and maintaining creativity is crucial for the continued development of organizations in particular, and ... More


Two Distinct Stages of Memory Consolidation

Howard Eichenbaum

in The Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory: An Introduction

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195141740
eISBN:
9780199865741
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195141740.003.0012
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

This chapter considers two aspects of memory consolidation, one that involves a fixation of memory within synapses over a period of minutes or hours, and another that involves a reorganization of ... More


Scanning, Searching, and Shifting Attention

Holly Alliger Ruff and Mary Klevjord Rothbart

in Attention in Early Development: Themes and Variations

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195136326
eISBN:
9780199894031
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195136326.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter uses the extensive research on eye movements in order to elucidate the development of visual information gathering. The eye movements of newborns show that they tend to fixate on ... More


Freudian Fixations

Berthold Hoeckner

in Film, Music, Memory

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2020
ISBN:
9780226649610
eISBN:
9780226649894
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226649894.003.0007
Subject:
Music, Popular

Chapter 6 focuses on cinematic representations of traumatic fixation which illustrate how the histories of cinema and psychoanalysis converged in films about psychiatric treatment and psychoanalytic ... More


Comparison of Head Movement Strategies among Mammals

James H. Fuller

in The Head-Neck Sensory Motor System

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195068207
eISBN:
9780199847198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195068207.003.0013
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

In this chapter, a variety of saccadic eye-head movements evoked by visual and auditory stimuli are reviewed. Variation in head movement strategies resulting from methodology as well as the subject's ... More


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