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Landscapes

Ricard Solé and Santiago F. Elena

in Viruses as Complex Adaptive Systems

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691158846
eISBN:
9780691185118
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691158846.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter begins by discussing fitness landscape, an idea first introduced by evolutionary geneticist Sewall Wright and later extended by several other authors. The fitness landscape is defined in ... More


Search Environments, Representation, and Encoding

Lael J. Schooler, Curt Burgess, Robert L. Goldstone, Wai-Tat Fu, Sergey Gavrilets, David Lazer, James A. R. Marshall, Frank Neumann, and Jan M. Wiener

in Cognitive Search: Evolution, Algorithms, and the Brain

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262018098
eISBN:
9780262306003
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262018098.003.0020
Subject:
Sociology, Social Psychology and Interaction

This chapter explores the benefits of restructuring search spaces and internal representations so as to make search more efficient. It begins by providing a formal definition of search, and proposes ... More


High-Dimensional Fitness Landscapes and Speciation

Sergey Gavrilets

in Evolution—the Extended Synthesis

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262513678
eISBN:
9780262315142
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262513678.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter describes what happens when one takes seriously the idea that adaptive landscapes are mathematical constructs of very high dimensionality and surprising properties, and reviews a theory ... More


Individual Fitness and the Measurement of Univariate Selection

Bruce Walsh and Michael Lynch

in Evolution and Selection of Quantitative Traits

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780198830870
eISBN:
9780191868986
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198830870.003.0029
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

This chapter examines various estimates of the fitness of an individual, focusing on statistical issues and potential sources of bias. With estimates of individual fitness in hand, one can then ... More


Evolutionary Processes

Stefan Thurner, Rudolf Hanel, and Peter Klimekl

in Introduction to the Theory of Complex Systems

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
November 2018
ISBN:
9780198821939
eISBN:
9780191861062
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198821939.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Evolutionary processes combine many features of complex systems: they are algorithmic; states co-evolve with interactions; they show power law statistics; they are selforganized critical; and they ... More


The landscape metaphor in development

Giuseppe Fusco, Roberto Carrer, and Emanuele Serrelli

in Towards a Theory of Development

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199671427
eISBN:
9780191781117
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199671427.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Developmental Biology

This chapter reviews and discusses the use of the landscape metaphor in development by analyzing its relationship with experimental work and theoretical modelling. Defining a landscape as a ... More


Economic Backwardness and Catching up: Brazilian Agriculture, 1964–2014

Lee Alston and Bernardo Mueller

in Diverse Development Paths and Structural Transformation in the Escape from Poverty

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780198737407
eISBN:
9780191800788
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198737407.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

In contrast to prevailing views Alexander Gerschenkron understood the development of backward countries as a contextual process that varied from country to country depending on which perquisites were ... More


Evolution

Wolfgang Banzhaf and Lidia Yamamoto

in Artificial Chemistries

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780262029438
eISBN:
9780262329460
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029438.003.0007
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

After having discussed how life might have originated in the early Earth (chapter 6), chapter 7 looks at how living organisms evolve by natural selection. It does that from a quantitative ... More


Fitness Landscape Models

M. E. J. Newman and R. G. Palmer

in Modeling Extinction

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195159455
eISBN:
9780197562000
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195159455.003.0007
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

Kauffman (1993, 1995; Kauffman and Levin 1987; Kauffman and Johnsen 1991) has proposed and studied in depth a class of models referred to as NK models, which are ... More


Evolutionary Dynamics

David D. Nolte

in Introduction to Modern Dynamics: Chaos, Networks, Space, and Time

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2019
ISBN:
9780198844624
eISBN:
9780191880216
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198844624.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Evolutionary dynamics treats the growth and decay of populations under conditions that influence reproduction, competition, predation and selection. The Lotka–Volterra equations are population ... More


Parallel Evolution: What Does It (Not) Tell Us and Why Is It (Still) Interesting?

Thomas Lenormand, Luis-Miguel Chevin, and Thomas Bataillon

in Chance in Evolution

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780226401744
eISBN:
9780226401911
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226401911.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Parallel evolution has been used as “proof” of a bewildering array of sometimes contradictory assertions: that Darwinism is wrong, that selection is all powerful, that the modern synthesis is ... More


Endogenous Uncertainty and the Dynamics of Constraints

Paul Humphreys

in Philosophical Papers

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780199334872
eISBN:
9780190219710
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199334872.003.0019
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

An agent- based model of social dynamics is introduced using a deformable fitness landscape, and it is shown that in certain clearly specifiable situations, strategies that are different from utility ... More


Self-Organized Critical Models

M. E. J. Newman and R. G. Palmer

in Modeling Extinction

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195159455
eISBN:
9780197562000
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195159455.003.0008
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

The models discussed in the last chapter are intriguing, but present a number of problems. In particular, most of the results about them come from computer ... More


Non-Equilibrium Models

M. E. J. Newman and R. G. Palmer

in Modeling Extinction

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195159455
eISBN:
9780197562000
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195159455.003.0011
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

Sibani and co-workers have proposed a model of the extinction process, which they call the "reset model" (Sibani et al. 1995,1998), which differs from those discussed ... More


Genetic Algorithms: A 30-Year Perspective

Kenneth De Jong

in Title Pages

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195162929
eISBN:
9780197562116
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195162929.003.0006
Subject:
Computer Science, Mathematical Theory of Computation

I continue to be surprised and pleased by the dramatic growth of interest in and applications of genetic algorithms (GAs) in recent years. This growth, in ... More


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