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Allee Effects in Ecology and Conservation

Franck Courchamp, Ludek Berec, and Joanna Gascoigne

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780198570301
eISBN:
9780191717642
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570301.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Allee effects are broadly defined as a decline in individual fitness at low population size or density, that can result in critical population thresholds below which populations crash to extinction. ... More


Family Relationships: An Evolutionary Perspective

Catherine A. Salmon and Todd K. Shackelford (eds)

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195320510
eISBN:
9780199786800
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195320510.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Kinship ties — the close relationships found within the family — have been a central focus of evolutionary biological analyses of social behavior ever since biologist William Hamilton extended the ... More


What Is Fitness?

James A.R. Marshall

in Social Evolution and Inclusive Fitness Theory: An Introduction

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161563
eISBN:
9781400866564
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161563.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter considers the problem of correctly defining fitness costs and benefits in inclusive fitness theory, when competition occurs between offspring who are relatives. It reviews the definition ... More


Heritability, Maximization, and Evolutionary Explanations

James A.R. Marshall

in Social Evolution and Inclusive Fitness Theory: An Introduction

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161563
eISBN:
9781400866564
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161563.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter examines which of the equivalent alternative partitions of fitness, including inclusive fitness and group fitness, can be interpreted as being subject to natural selection in a ... More


Natural Selection in the Abstract

Samir Okasha

in Evolution and the Levels of Selection

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199267972
eISBN:
9780191708275
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199267972.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter studies the logic of evolution by natural selection and the origin of the levels of selection question. The abstract nature of the core Darwinian principles, and thus their potential ... More


Causality and Multi‐Level Selection

Samir Okasha

in Evolution and the Levels of Selection

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199267972
eISBN:
9780191708275
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199267972.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter analyzes the causal dimension to multi-level selection theory. Particular attention is paid to the idea that direct selection at one hierarchical level may generate, as a side effect, a ... More


The Group Selection Controversy

Samir Okasha

in Evolution and the Levels of Selection

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199267972
eISBN:
9780191708275
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199267972.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter examines the notorious issue of group selection in behavioural ecology, one of the mainstays of the traditional levels of selection debate. The history of the group selection controversy ... More


Socialization

Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis

in A Cooperative Species: Human Reciprocity and Its Evolution

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691151250
eISBN:
9781400838837
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691151250.003.0010
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

This chapter examines socialization and the process by which social norms become internalized, how this capacity for internalization could have evolved, and why the norms internalized tend to be ... More


Social Evolution and Inclusive Fitness Theory: An Introduction

James A.R. Marshall

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161563
eISBN:
9781400866564
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161563.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Social behavior has long puzzled evolutionary biologists, since the classical theory of natural selection maintains that individuals should not sacrifice their own fitness to affect that of others. ... More


 What Is Evolutionary Biology and Where Is It Coming From?

Paul F. Lurquin and Linda Stone

in Evolution and Religious Creation Myths: How Scientists Respond

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195315387
eISBN:
9780199785674
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315387.003.0002
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

This chapter describes the Darwin-Wallace theory of evolution by natural selection. In particular, it explains the notion of fitness, which underlies the concepts of descent with modification and the ... More


Strains and Drug Resistance

Christopher Dye

in The Population Biology of Tuberculosis

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691154626
eISBN:
9781400866571
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691154626.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter examines the geographical distribution of resistant forms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and their time trends. Apart from drug resistance, there are plenty of other main questions about ... More


Inclusive Fitness and Hamilton’s Rule

James A.R. Marshall

in Social Evolution and Inclusive Fitness Theory: An Introduction

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161563
eISBN:
9781400866564
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161563.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter examines how the logic of inclusive fitness theory can be mathematically formalized using the Price equation, and how that formalization can be used to derive Hamilton's rule in its ... More


Are Flowers under Selective Pressure to Increase Pollinator Attention?

Beverley J. Glover

in Understanding Flowers and Flowering: An integrated approach

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198565970
eISBN:
9780191714009
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565970.003.0017
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

The underlying assumption of much of the work on flower development and morphology is that these features serve to increase the attractiveness of the flower to pollinating animals, thus maximizing ... More


Lifetime reproductive success and sexual selection theory

Walter D. Koenig

in Dragonflies and Damselflies: Model Organisms for Ecological and Evolutionary Research

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199230693
eISBN:
9780191710889
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230693.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Animal Biology

This chapter summarizes studies of lifetime reproductive success (LRS) conducted on odonates. Such studies have focused on many characters, but have typically concluded that survivorship — the main ... More


Testing hypotheses about parasite-mediated selection using odonate hosts

Mark R. Forbes and Tonia Robb

in Dragonflies and Damselflies: Model Organisms for Ecological and Evolutionary Research

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199230693
eISBN:
9780191710889
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230693.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Animal Biology

Parasites are thought to select for host traits, such as elaborate ornaments and intricate immune systems. Dragonflies have proven useful hosts for studying parasite-mediated selection. This chapter ... More


The genetic and ecological context of selection

Graham Bell

in Selection: The Mechanism of Evolution

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780198569725
eISBN:
9780191717741
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569725.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter gives some quantitative information about the rates of genetic and environmental deterioration. The first section in this chapter is about history, chance, and necessity, and includes ... More


Selection in multicellular organisms

Graham Bell

in Selection: The Mechanism of Evolution

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780198569725
eISBN:
9780191717741
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569725.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The development of multicellular organisms involves a balance between somatic and reproductive tissues. This chapter outlines how the action of selection is influenced by the age at which structures ... More


Natural selection in open populations

Graham Bell

in Selection: The Mechanism of Evolution

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780198569725
eISBN:
9780191717741
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569725.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Natural selection can be observed and measured in natural populations. This chapter argues that it is commonplace, strong, fluctuating, and oligogenic. The first section here is called Fitness in ... More


National Fitness in the 1930s

Ina Zweiniger‐Bargielowska

in Managing the Body: Beauty, Health, and Fitness in Britain 1880-1939

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199280520
eISBN:
9780191594878
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199280520.003.0008
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History

This chapter explores the 1930s fitness movement which showcased fit, disciplined citizens whose tempered patriotism stood in contrast with the uniformity invoked by fascist youth organizations. The ... More


INTRODUCTION: Virus basics and the concept of Viral Fitness

Jaap Goudsmit

in Viral Fitness: The Next SARS and West Nile in the Making

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195130348
eISBN:
9780199790166
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195130348.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Microbiology

This introductory chapter discusses what viruses are and how they fit into the living world. Topics covered include the three large families in the living world: bacteria, archaea, and eukarya; ... More


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