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Motive

Joseph Pilsner

in The Specification of Human Actions in St Thomas Aquinas

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780199286058
eISBN:
9780191603808
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199286051.003.0008
Subject:
Religion, Theology

Aquinas says that motives are responsible for the specification of human action. ‘Motive’ can generally refer to any principle of movement, but two meanings are especially significant in the context ... More


Divine Wisdom and Final Causes

Daniel Garber

in Leibniz: Body, Substance, Monad

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199566648
eISBN:
9780191722035
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199566648.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter focuses on Leibniz's treatment of final causes and divine wisdom. It first argues that the question of final causes should be distinguished from that of contingency: there are numerous ... More


Preliminary Study of Aristotle's Causes

Monte Ransome Johnson

in Aristotle on Teleology

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199285303
eISBN:
9780191603143
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199285306.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy

Aristotle considers nature, art, spontaneity, luck, necessity, and intelligence to be causes, and they fit into the four kinds of cause that he distinguishes throughout works on natural philosophy. ... More


The Priority of the Objects over the Capacities of the Soul

Thomas Kjeller Johansen

in The Powers of Aristotle's Soul

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199658435
eISBN:
9780191742231
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199658435.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Aristotle says in DA II.4 that the objects are prior in account not only to the capacities of the soul but also to their activities. As the case of nutrition shows, this claim is best understood if ... More


Teleological Notions

Monte Ransome Johnson

in Aristotle on Teleology

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199285303
eISBN:
9780191603143
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199285306.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy

The key term of Aristotle’s teleology is “the cause for the sake of which”. Aristotle discusses in several key texts (Physics, On the Soul, Metaphysics, Eudemian Ethics) the fact that this has two ... More


Critique of Earlier Philosophers on the Good and the Causes Critique of Earlier Philosophers on the Good and the Causes Metaphysics A 7–A 8 989a18

Stephen Menn

in Aristotle's Metaphysics Alpha: Symposium Aristotelicum

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199639984
eISBN:
9780191743337
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199639984.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

In Chapter 7 Aristotle draws some conclusions from the survey of earlier philosophers' views in A3-6. He is interested, not so much in what archai they believed in, or in what kinds of causes they ... More


Creation's Modalities

Norman Kretzmann

in The Metaphysics of Creation: Aquinas's Natural Theology in Summa contra gentiles II

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199246540
eISBN:
9780191597879
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199246548.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Focuses on the investigation of the question—why would an absolutely perfect being create anything at all? Aquinas's account of a non‐necessitated choice in the act of creating involves a return to ... More


The Next Principle’ The Next Principle’ Metaphysics A 3–4, 984b8–985b22

Gâbor Betegh

in Aristotle's Metaphysics Alpha: Symposium Aristotelicum

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199639984
eISBN:
9780191743337
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199639984.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter examines the way Aristotle describes in A 3–4 (984b8–985a29) the reasons and motivations, which, on his interpretation, lead his predecessors to introduce a new type of principle that ... More


Essence and End in Aristotle

Jacob Rosen

in Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy, Volume 46

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780198712923
eISBN:
9780191809767
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198712923.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy

This chapter attempts to clarify Aristotle’s claims that a thing’s formal cause is often one with, or the same as, its final cause. This claim has confused scholarly understanding regarding the ... More


The Importance of Nutrition

Thomas Kjeller Johansen

in The Powers of Aristotle's Soul

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199658435
eISBN:
9780191742231
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199658435.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Nutrition plays a fundamental role in Aristotle's psychology, but not, as is sometimes thought, because it provides the focal or generic notion of life. Rather the nutritive capacity is a ... More


Teleology

J. L. Mackie

in The Cement of the Universe: A Study of Causation

Published in print:
1980
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198246428
eISBN:
9780191597954
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198246420.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter considers the relevance of teleology for an account of causation. Mackie questions whether there are final causes that can be seen to operate in objective processes which are ... More


Athens III: Aristotle

Wallace Matson

in Grand Theories and Everyday Beliefs: Science, Philosophy, and their Histories

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199812691
eISBN:
9780199919420
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199812691.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Aristotle was student then junior colleague of Plato in the Academy. Later he was appointed tutor to Alexander, crown prince of Macedonia. Returning to Athens, he founded his own school, the Lyceum. ... More


Body and Mind (Aristotle)

Howard Rachlin

in The Escape of the Mind

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199322350
eISBN:
9780190219536
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199322350.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter claims that the mind stands to behavior as a more abstract pattern (such as a dance) stands to its own particular elements (the steps of the dance). For Aristotle (the chapter argues), ... More


Avicenna on Teleology: Final Causation and Goodness: Kara Richardson

Jeffrey K. McDonough

in Teleology: A History

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
July 2020
ISBN:
9780190845711
eISBN:
9780190845742
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190845711.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter examines Avicenna’s theory of final causation in light of two competing interpretations of Aristotelian teleology. According to the good-centered view, Aristotle’s claim that the end is ... More


Right Reason in Natural Law Moral Theory: Thomas Aquinas and William of Ockham

Anthony J. Lisska

in Reason, Religion, and Natural Law: From Plato to Spinoza

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199767175
eISBN:
9780199979592
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199767175.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

Recent scholarship argues that William of Ockham was not the radical voluntarist that historians of philosophy sometimes claimed. This “revisionist” account depends upon a reading of “recta ratio”. ... More


Aristotle Redivivus

Michael Ruse

in On Purpose

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2020
ISBN:
9780691195957
eISBN:
9781400888603
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691195957.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter explains occurrences during and after the Scientific Revolution, in which the personification of nature that is at the heart of the Aristotelian philosophy had a nasty way of reappearing ... More


Teleology in the Later Middle Ages: Robert Pasnau

Jeffrey K. McDonough

in Teleology: A History

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
July 2020
ISBN:
9780190845711
eISBN:
9780190845742
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190845711.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Teleological explanation is one of the legacies of antiquity that received a surprisingly muted response in the Middle Ages. Aristotle’s naturalized approach to teleology met with little enthusiasm, ... More


Physico-Theology, Natural Philosophy, and Sensory Experience

Alexander Wragge-Morley

in Aesthetic Science: Representing Nature in the Royal Society of London, 1650-1720

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226680729
eISBN:
9780226681054
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226681054.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter reassesses the relationship between physico-theology—the main body of works in which philosophers such as Robert Boyle, Nehemiah Grew, and John Ray advanced claims about how nature ... More


Responding to the Platonists: Physics I 9

Sarah Broadie

in Aristotle's Physics Alpha: Symposium Aristotelicum

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
July 2019
ISBN:
9780198830993
eISBN:
9780191868948
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198830993.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

This chapter examines Aristotle’s rejection of a Platonist theory positing two principles: Form and the Great and Small. He complains that, under the latter, privation is not distinguished from the ... More


Horrors: To What End?

Marilyn McCord Adams

in Alternative Concepts of God: Essays on the Metaphysics of the Divine

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198722250
eISBN:
9780191789090
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198722250.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

John Bishop and Ken Perszyk argue that horrors disprove the existence of personal omni-God, where the essential perfect goodness of personal omni-God is understood to be perfectly loving ... More


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