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Epilogue

A. W. Price

in Love and Friendship in Plato and Aristotle

Published in print:
1990
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198248996
eISBN:
9780191681172
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198248996.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

The character of life that has permitted people to unite egoism and altruism to a certain degree is that which is called moral fecundity. It is necessary that individual life should diffuse itself ... More


 Evolution and Divine Suffering

Gloria L. Schaab

in Creative Suffering of the Triune God: An Evolutionary Theology

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195329124
eISBN:
9780199785711
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195329124.003.0006
Subject:
Religion, Theology

Key concepts in the evolutionary theology provide primary grounding for an affirmation of divine suffering. Chapter 5 explores six elements that factor significantly into a proposal of divine ... More


Sexual size dimorphism: patterns and processes

Martín Alejandro Serrano-Meneses, Alex Córdoba-Aguilar, and Tamás Székely

in Dragonflies and Damselflies: Model Organisms for Ecological and Evolutionary Research

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199230693
eISBN:
9780191710889
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230693.003.0018
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Animal Biology

Odonates provide excellent model organisms for testing functional explanations of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) because of their wide variety of habitats, morphology, development, feeding behaviour, ... More


Selection in multicellular organisms

Graham Bell

in Selection: The Mechanism of Evolution

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780198569725
eISBN:
9780191717741
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569725.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The development of multicellular organisms involves a balance between somatic and reproductive tissues. This chapter outlines how the action of selection is influenced by the age at which structures ... More


Parasitism and the regulation of host populations

Anders Pape Møller

in Parasitism and Ecosystems

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198529873
eISBN:
9780191712777
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529873.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

Parasites can have a dramatic effect on the host population and regulate host populations under specific cases. This chapter reviews the basic microparasite and macroparasite models, and the ... More


Physiological Bases of Fecundity/Longevity Tradeoffs

J. Eduardo P. W. Bicudo, William A. Buttemer, Mark A. Chappell, James T. Pearson, and Claus Bech

in Ecological and Environmental Physiology of Birds

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199228447
eISBN:
9780191711305
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199228447.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Ornithology

As sexually reproducing animals, birds must balance the competing nutritional needs of growth and self-maintenance with those of reproduction. This creates a fecundity-longevity tradeoff. Extrinsic ... More


What Is Fitness?

James A.R. Marshall

in Social Evolution and Inclusive Fitness Theory: An Introduction

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161563
eISBN:
9781400866564
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161563.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter considers the problem of correctly defining fitness costs and benefits in inclusive fitness theory, when competition occurs between offspring who are relatives. It reviews the definition ... More


Sexual size dimorphism in mammals

Patrik Lindenfors, John L. Gittleman, and Kate E. Jones

in Sex, Size and Gender Roles: Evolutionary Studies of Sexual Size Dimorphism

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199208784
eISBN:
9780191709036
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199208784.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter explores the pattern of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in mammals and the processes that underlie its evolution. Most mammalian orders have male-biased SSD, although some orders are not ... More


The evolution of sexual size dimorphism in reptiles

Robert M. Cox, Marguerite A. Butler, and Henry B. John-Alder

in Sex, Size and Gender Roles: Evolutionary Studies of Sexual Size Dimorphism

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199208784
eISBN:
9780191709036
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199208784.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Most studies interpret reptilian sexual size dimorphism (SSD) as a means to reducing resource competition by way of sexual selection, fecundity selection, and natural selection. This chapter assesses ... More


Sexual size dimorphism in spiders: patterns and processes

Matthias W. Foellmer and Jordi Moya-Laraño

in Sex, Size and Gender Roles: Evolutionary Studies of Sexual Size Dimorphism

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199208784
eISBN:
9780191709036
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199208784.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter uses data for 489 spider species from fifteen families to describe patterns of variation in sexual size dimorphism (SSD), and to evaluate hypotheses explaining these patterns. The ... More


Variation in selection, phenotypic plasticity, and the ecology of sexual size dimorphism in two seed-feeding beetles

Charles W. Fox, R. Craig Stillwell, and Jordi Moya-Laraño

in Sex, Size and Gender Roles: Evolutionary Studies of Sexual Size Dimorphism

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199208784
eISBN:
9780191709036
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199208784.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter reviews recent studies on two seed beetle species with contrasting sexual size dimorphism (SSD): males are larger in Stator limbatus and females are larger in Callosobruchus maculatus. ... More


Sexual dimorphism in the water strider, Aquarius remigis: a case study of adaptation in response to sexually antagonistic selection

Daphne J. Fairbairn

in Sex, Size and Gender Roles: Evolutionary Studies of Sexual Size Dimorphism

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199208784
eISBN:
9780191709036
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199208784.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter describes a series of studies examining the adaptive significance of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in the water strider, Aquarius remigis. The data reveal that SSD is negligible until the ... More


Case studies of the differential-equilibrium hypothesis of sexual size dimorphism in two dung fly species

Wolf U. Blanckenhorn

in Sex, Size and Gender Roles: Evolutionary Studies of Sexual Size Dimorphism

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199208784
eISBN:
9780191709036
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199208784.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter describes studies on two common dung fly species with contrasting sexual size dimorphism (SSD): females are the larger sex in Sepsis cynipsea but the smaller sex in Scathophaga ... More


Sperm Demand and Allocation in Decapod Crustaceans

Bernard Sainte-Marie

in Evolutionary Ecology of Social and Sexual Systems: Crustaceans as Model Organisms

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195179927
eISBN:
9780199790111
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195179927.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

This chapter examines trends in male gametic strategies in relation to female sperm demand among gonochoristic decapod crustaceans. Female lifetime fecundity and number of eggs per spawn can vary ... More


African wild dogs: Demography and population dynamics of African wild dogs in three critical populations

Scott Creel, Michael G. L. Mills, and J. Weldon McNutt

in The Biology and Conservation of Wild Canids

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198515562
eISBN:
9780191705632
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515562.003.0022
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) always have low population densities when compared to sympatric large carnivores. Most populations are small, and only a handful exceeds 500. Three of the largest ... More


Temperature and the Life History

Michael J. Angilletta

in Thermal Adaptation: A Theoretical and Empirical Synthesis

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780198570875
eISBN:
9780191718748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570875.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Animal Biology

The thermal sensitivity of performance places selective pressures on the life histories of ectotherms. In general, higher developmental temperatures lead to smaller adult sizes and offspring sizes. ... More


Populations: Density and Breeding Success

Carolyn M. King and Roger A. Powell

in The Natural History of Weasels and Stoats: Ecology, Behavior, and Management

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195322712
eISBN:
9780199894239
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322712.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

All methods of estimating density of weasels are difficult to verify, largely because the study area has to be large and many individuals will escape detection. Systematic trapping, footprint ... More


Introduction: A Third Phase of Life

Laurence D. Muller

in Does Aging Stop?

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199754229
eISBN:
9780199896714
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199754229.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

There is a third phase of life, following development and aging, which we call late life. Late life is characterized by relative flat mortality and fecundity rates or plateaus. Late life requires ... More


Discovery of Late Life

Laurence D. Mueller

in Does Aging Stop?

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199754229
eISBN:
9780199896714
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199754229.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Human demographers have long noticed and documented a reduction in the acceleration of human mortality rates with age. But this pattern in human data was not considered of general scientific ... More


Late-Life Mortality and Fecundity Plateaus Evolve

Laurence D. Muller

in Does Aging Stop?

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199754229
eISBN:
9780199896714
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199754229.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

In Drosophila laboratory evolution, mortality and fecundity plateaus evolve in the manner predicted by Hamiltonian theory. These ‘strong inference’ experiments provide corroboration for the ... More


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