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Appearance Bias–Fat Rights

W. A. Bogart

in Regulating Obesity?: Government, Society, and Questions of Health

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199856206
eISBN:
9780199369621
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199856206.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Medical Law

Obese people are the targets of discrimination in many forms in schools, at work, in social settings, in the media, etc. This chapter first addresses the question of why obese people should be ... More


The Metamorphoses of Fat: A History of Obesity

Georges Vigarello

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231159760
eISBN:
9780231535304
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231159760.001.0001
Subject:
History, Social History

This book maps the evolution of Western ideas about fat and fat people from the Middle Ages to the present, paying particular attention to the role of science, fashion, fitness crazes, and public ... More


Declaring “the Martyr”

Georges Vigarello

in The Metamorphoses of Fat: A History of Obesity

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231159760
eISBN:
9780231535304
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231159760.003.0019
Subject:
History, Social History

This chapter discusses the changing perceptions about obesity in 1920s. The overweight person was no longer seen as the glutton or the oaf, but the sneaky one who dodges the order to slim down and ... More


Conclusion

Georges Vigarello

in The Metamorphoses of Fat: A History of Obesity

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231159760
eISBN:
9780231535304
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231159760.003.0020
Subject:
History, Social History

This concluding chapter presents some final thoughts. It describes the changing stigmatization of the fat person over time, highlighting an important difference that traverses all these ... More


The Plural of Fat

Georges Vigarello

in The Metamorphoses of Fat: A History of Obesity

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231159760
eISBN:
9780231535304
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231159760.003.0006
Subject:
History, Social History

This chapter considers the transformation of the notion of fat in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Doctors used fat to accentuate their emphasis on a norm. Their examples become more precise ... More


The Dominance of Aesthetics

Georges Vigarello

in The Metamorphoses of Fat: A History of Obesity

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231159760
eISBN:
9780231535304
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231159760.003.0016
Subject:
History, Social History

This chapter discusses how references to weight became ordinary and a widely understood indicator in people’s minds in the nineteenth century. This can be seen in the mention of weights in the ... More


Stigmatizing Powerlessness

Georges Vigarello

in The Metamorphoses of Fat: A History of Obesity

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231159760
eISBN:
9780231535304
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231159760.003.0010
Subject:
History, Social History

This chapter discusses the increased attention to degrees of bigness and more acute stigmatization of “excesses” during the Enlightenment. Eighteenth-century culture had a different vision of the ... More


The Shores of Laziness

Georges Vigarello

in The Metamorphoses of Fat: A History of Obesity

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231159760
eISBN:
9780231535304
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231159760.003.0005
Subject:
History, Social History

This chapter describes how criticism of the “heavy” and “enormous” person changed in the sixteenth century. Indolence displeased; the useless was disquieting; and laziness became “the plague of human ... More


Inventing Nuance

Georges Vigarello

in The Metamorphoses of Fat: A History of Obesity

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231159760
eISBN:
9780231535304
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231159760.003.0009
Subject:
History, Social History

This chapter describes how the judgment of contours changed in the Age of Enlightenment. Numerical measuring of weight appeared in the medical literature, and a ranking of volumes also appeared in ... More


From Chemistry to Energy

Georges Vigarello

in The Metamorphoses of Fat: A History of Obesity

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231159760
eISBN:
9780231535304
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231159760.003.0014
Subject:
History, Social History

This chapter discusses the more objective perceptions of fatness in the early nineteenth century. Numbers and measurements accentuated a more precise reckoning of fatness while categories were ... More


The Prestige of the Big Person

Georges Vigarello

in The Metamorphoses of Fat: A History of Obesity

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231159760
eISBN:
9780231535304
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231159760.003.0001
Subject:
History, Social History

This chapter explores the prestige associated with “bigness” in the Middle Ages. The vicious cycle of hunger, severe restrictions, and food shortages stemming from poor degraded soils, inadequate ... More


Typology Fever

Georges Vigarello

in The Metamorphoses of Fat: A History of Obesity

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231159760
eISBN:
9780231535304
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231159760.003.0013
Subject:
History, Social History

This chapter considers the social factors that influenced the evaluation of silhouettes at the beginning of the nineteenth century, particularly the changing codes of physical appearance stirred-up ... More


The Thin Revolution

Georges Vigarello

in The Metamorphoses of Fat: A History of Obesity

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231159760
eISBN:
9780231535304
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231159760.003.0018
Subject:
History, Social History

This chapter discusses the emergence of a new attitude in the 1920s. The transformation of the status of women brought with it a new thinness—an avoidance of references to breasts and other ... More


The Fifteenth Century and the Contrasts of Slimming

Georges Vigarello

in The Metamorphoses of Fat: A History of Obesity

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231159760
eISBN:
9780231535304
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231159760.003.0004
Subject:
History, Social History

By the end of the medieval period, illuminated manuscripts and frescoes provided access to images with identifiable sizes for the first time, bringing about a slow but explicit attention to contours, ... More


Exploring Images, Defining Terms

Georges Vigarello

in The Metamorphoses of Fat: A History of Obesity

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231159760
eISBN:
9780231535304
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231159760.003.0007
Subject:
History, Social History

This chapter describes how a new curiosity about size expressed itself in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries through more developed iconographies and a wider array of terms for thin and fat. ... More


Constraining the Flesh

Georges Vigarello

in The Metamorphoses of Fat: A History of Obesity

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231159760
eISBN:
9780231535304
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231159760.003.0008
Subject:
History, Social History

This chapter describes the emergence of original treatments in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. There were the very first steps toward an evaluation of weight based on physical signs: the ... More


Clinical Obesity and Everyday Obesity

Georges Vigarello

in The Metamorphoses of Fat: A History of Obesity

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231159760
eISBN:
9780231535304
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231159760.003.0017
Subject:
History, Social History

This chapter discusses changing perceptions of bodily forms in the second half of the nineteenth century. These perceptions were influenced by the ascendancy of “free time,” the revolutionary changes ... More


Toning Up

Georges Vigarello

in The Metamorphoses of Fat: A History of Obesity

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231159760
eISBN:
9780231535304
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231159760.003.0011
Subject:
History, Social History

This chapter describes eighteenth-century treatments for the fat person. New slimming programs focused on the image of powerlessness and the theme of a collapse that favored fat buildup. An illness ... More


The Horizon of Fault

Georges Vigarello

in The Metamorphoses of Fat: A History of Obesity

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231159760
eISBN:
9780231535304
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231159760.003.0003
Subject:
History, Social History

In the middle centuries of the medieval period, a change in attitude occurred around the big person associated with excessive eating and daily rotundity. Criticism of the ordinary big person, no ... More


The Weight of Figures

Georges Vigarello

in The Metamorphoses of Fat: A History of Obesity

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231159760
eISBN:
9780231535304
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231159760.003.0012
Subject:
History, Social History

This chapter discusses the increasing importance of figures in the early nineteenth century. Treatises on obesity had become common, although they continued to be strongly focused on extreme cases. ... More


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