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False Allegations of Sexual Abuse

Kathleen Coulborn Faller

in Interviewing Children about Sexual Abuse: Controversies and Best Practice

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195311778
eISBN:
9780199865055
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195311778.003.0014
Subject:
Social Work, Children and Families, Crime and Justice

Both professionals and the public are attentive to and, in some instances, preoccupied with the possibility that sexual abuse allegation might be false. This chapter first differentiates between a ... More


Tests using single markers

Howard S. Cuckle and Nicholas Wald

in Antenatal and Neonatal Screening

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780192628268
eISBN:
9780191723605
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192628268.003.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter describes screening based on the measurement of a single variable. Before considering the screening test in detail, it is necessary to consider the disorder for which screening is being ... More


Tests using multiple markers

Nicholas Wald and Allan Hackshaw

in Antenatal and Neonatal Screening

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780192628268
eISBN:
9780191723605
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192628268.003.0002
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter describes the methodology behind screening using multiple markers together in a single test. The method is based on estimating an individual's risk of having the disorder being screened ... More


When Misinformed Patients Try to Make Informed Health Decisions

Wolfgang Gaissmaier and Gerd Gigerenzer

in Better Doctors, Better Patients, Better Decisions: Envisioning Health Care 2020

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262016032
eISBN:
9780262298957
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016032.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Health Psychology

Statistical illiteracy in health—the inability to understand health statistics—is widespread among the general public. Many people find it hard to accept uncertainty in the first place and, even if ... More


Screening, Diagnosis, and Prognosis

Michael B. Bracken

in Risk, Chance, and Causation: Investigating the Origins and Treatment of Disease

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300188844
eISBN:
9780300189551
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300188844.003.0007
Subject:
History, Environmental History

This chapter discusses the common dilemmas in the medical and public health sector. First, it must be established that no test for screening, diagnosis, or prognosis is 100 percent accurate. It is ... More


The Current State of the Science and the Law

Christopher Slobogin

in Proving the Unprovable: The Role of Law, Science, and Speculation in Adjudicating Culpability and Dangerousness

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195189957
eISBN:
9780199893980
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195189957.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Forensic Psychology

This chapter begins by describing the current state of prediction science, which is improving but is still almost as likely to produce inaccurate judgments as accurate ones. It also makes the crucial ... More


The Future of Newborn Screening

Stefan Timmermans and Mara Buchbinder

in Saving Babies?: The Consequences of Newborn Genetic Screening

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780226924977
eISBN:
9780226924991
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226924991.003.0008
Subject:
Sociology, Health, Illness, and Medicine

The book concludes by enumerating at least five contemporary omens that signal the possible futures of newborn screening. The first omen suggests a future in which screening for rare genetic ... More


Diagnostic tests—assessing accuracy

Steve Selvin

in The Joy of Statistics: A Treasury of Elementary Statistical Tools and their Applications

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780198833444
eISBN:
9780191872280
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198833444.003.0016
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics, Applied Mathematics

The use of a two-way table to describe three important statistical properties. Namely: sensitivity, specificity, and false positive measures. The related role of disease prevalence is also discussed.


Understanding Uncertainty: False Negatives in Quantitative Risk Analysis

Kristin Shrader-Frechette

in Tainted: How Philosophy of Science Can Expose Bad Science

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2014
ISBN:
9780199396412
eISBN:
9780199396436
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199396412.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The chapter assesses another typical scientific value judgment, minimizing false positives (false assertions of an effect), not false negatives (false denials of an effect), when both cannot be ... More


Problem Investigation and Inferences Using the Case-Control Method

Haroutune K. Armenian

in The Case-Control Method: Design and Applications

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195187113
eISBN:
9780199864898
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195187113.003.0002
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter begins by presenting the type of problems that are investigated using the case-control method. These include etiologic research, acute event investigation, and evaluation of health care ... More


Conspiracy’s Discontents: Prevention and False Positives After September 11

Peter Margulies

in Law's Detour: Justice Displaced in the Bush Administration

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814795590
eISBN:
9780814759608
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814795590.003.0006
Subject:
Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law

This chapter examines the Bush administration's conspiracy prosecutions as the cornerstone of a new strategy for prevention after 9/11. It begins with an overview of the history and theory of ... More


Getting Risk Right: Understanding the Science of Elusive Health Risks

Geoffrey C. Kabat

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780231166461
eISBN:
9780231542852
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231166461.001.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

Do cell phones cause brain cancer? Does BPA threaten our health? How safe are certain dietary supplements, especially those containing exotic herbs or small amounts of toxic substances? Is the HPV ... More


5 Conspiracy’s Discontents: Prevention and False Positives After September 11

Peter Margulies

in Law's Detour: Justice Displaced in the Bush Administration

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814795590
eISBN:
9780814759608
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814795590.003.0006
Subject:
Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law

This chapter examines the Bush administration's conspiracy prosecutions as the cornerstone of a new strategy for prevention after 9/11. It begins with an overview of the history and theory of ... More


Saving Babies?: The Consequences of Newborn Genetic Screening

Stefan Timmermans and Mara Buchbinder

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780226924977
eISBN:
9780226924991
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226924991.001.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Health, Illness, and Medicine

It has been close to six decades since Watson and Crick discovered the structure of DNA and more than ten years since the human genome was decoded. Today, through the collection and analysis of a ... More


False Positives: Opportunities and Dangers in Big-Data Text Analysis1

Geoffrey Rockwell and Stéfan Sinclair

in Hermeneutica: Computer-Assisted Interpretation in the Humanities

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780262034357
eISBN:
9780262332064
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262034357.003.0007
Subject:
Society and Culture, Cultural Studies

What is big data, and what does it have to do with the humanities? The Snowden revelations have drawn attention to the opportunities and dangers to the gathering of large collections of data, ... More


The Consequences of Newborn Screening

Stefan Timmermans and Mara Buchbinder

in Saving Babies?: The Consequences of Newborn Genetic Screening

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780226924977
eISBN:
9780226924991
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226924991.003.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Health, Illness, and Medicine

This book begins by showing how powerful the rationale for expanding newborn screening is, with its appeal residing in secondary prevention. Rather than treating children with devastating metabolic ... More


Experimental methods

Richard E. Passingham and James B. Rowe

in A Short Guide to Brain Imaging: The Neuroscience of Human Cognition

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780198709138
eISBN:
9780191815270
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198709138.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Development

Having recorded a signal, it is necessary to interpret its functional significance. The way in which this is done is to relate the signal to a psychological condition. As in other branches of ... More


Reducing Harm Resulting from False Allegations of Child Sexual Abuse: The Importance of Corroboration

Steve Herman

in Wrongful Allegations of Sexual and Child Abuse

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
October 2016
ISBN:
9780198723301
eISBN:
9780191789700
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198723301.003.0017
Subject:
Law, Criminal Law and Criminology, Legal Profession and Ethics

In many prosecutions for child sexual abuse (CSA), the only evidence is the testimony of the alleged victim. Prosecutions of uncorroborated CSA allegations have sometimes led to the wrongful ... More


Network statistics and measurement error

Mark Newman

in Networks

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
October 2018
ISBN:
9780198805090
eISBN:
9780191843235
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198805090.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter introduces the mathematics of network statistics, the quantification of errors in network data, and the estimation of network structure in the presence of error. The discussion starts ... More


Random Error

David A. Savitz and Gregory A. Wellenius

in Interpreting Epidemiologic Evidence: Connecting Research to Applications

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780190243777
eISBN:
9780190243807
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190243777.003.0012
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Random error refers to the non-systematic reasons that estimated values deviate from the correct values. The processes that give rise to random error, either sampling or allocation across treatments, ... More


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