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Strategies for Refuting Closure for Knowledge

Anthony Brueckner

in Essays on Skepticism

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199585861
eISBN:
9780191595332
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199585861.003.0033
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter is a reply to Ted Warfield's claim that you cannot refute closure by showing that some necessary condition for knowledge is not closed.


Logical Determinism or Fatalism

J. R. LUCAS

in The Freedom of the Will

Published in print:
1970
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198243434
eISBN:
9780191680687
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198243434.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Moral Philosophy

Logical determinism fails through indefiniteness. The logician may be able to ascribe a truth-value to propositions before they have ‘come true’ (or not), but he cannot ascribe a definite one. Some ... More


Probability Learning in 1000 Trials

Jie W Weiss and David J Weiss

in A Science of Decision Making: The Legacy of Ward Edwards

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195322989
eISBN:
9780199869206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322989.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter presents a probability learning experiment in which each of 120 Ss made a sequence of 1,000 predictions about which two mutually exclusive events occur. After each prediction, one of the ... More


The Pragmatic Fallacy (1991) *

Nathan Salmon

in Content, Cognition, and Communication: Philosophical Papers II

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199284726
eISBN:
9780191713774
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199284726.003.0017
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

This chapter exposes a fallacy commonly committed in arguments concerning the philosophy of semantics. The Pragmatic Fallacy consists in inferring a semantic property of an expression from the ... More


 Accounting for Tastes

Ken Binmore

in Playing for Real: Game Theory

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780195300574
eISBN:
9780199783748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195300574.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

This chapter explains the meaning of the payoffs that are used to quantify the outcomes of games. The theory of revealed preference assumes only that players are consistent. With appropriate ... More


Musical Chairs and Inescapable Mathematics

ROBERT V. DODGE

in Schelling's Game Theory: How to Make Decisions

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199857203
eISBN:
9780199932597
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199857203.003.0011
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Behavioural Economics

The metaphor “musical chairs” encompasses a broad range of observations and behaviors in which the same patterns emerge in the aggregate regardless of how the individuals who comprise the aggregate ... More


Bad Timing

Jon Elster

in The Thief of Time: Philosophical Essays on Procrastination

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195376685
eISBN:
9780199776306
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195376685.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

In this chapter, procrastination is viewed as a species of a more general phenomenon, bad timing, which also includes premature decisions. The badness of bad timing is defined in terms of ... More


Virtue for Procrastinators

Elijah Millgram

in The Thief of Time: Philosophical Essays on Procrastination

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195376685
eISBN:
9780199776306
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195376685.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

One type of procrastination is a result of the surprising temporal structure of some important human goods, whose benefits cannot be accounted for as the sums of benefits of momentary goods. Virtue ... More


The Two Deepest Mysteries in Moral Philosophy

William J. Talbott

in Human Rights and Human Well-Being

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195173482
eISBN:
9780199872176
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195173482.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter shows how the main principle points the way to a solution to the two deepest mysteries in moral philosophy, one metaphysical and one epistemological. The metaphysical mystery is to ... More


Trying to Predict the Market

Hersh Shefrin

in Beyond Greed and Fear: Understanding Behavioral Finance and the Psychology of Investing

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195161212
eISBN:
9780199832996
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195161211.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

Wall Street strategists are susceptible to gambler's fallacy. In general, four important behavioral elements affect the market predictions of investors: overconfidence, betting on trends, anchoring ... More


Systemic Analysis

Adrian Vermeule

in The System of the Constitution

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199838455
eISBN:
9780199932481
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199838455.003.0002
Subject:
Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law

This chapter defines system effects, provides a range of motivating examples, and describes two pitfalls into which analysts or actors can stumble when they overlook system effects. In the fallacy of ... More


Fixed Income Securities: The Full Measure of Behavioral Phenomena

Hersh Shefrin

in Beyond Greed and Fear: Understanding Behavioral Finance and the Psychology of Investing

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195161212
eISBN:
9780199832996
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195161211.003.0014
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

This chapter discusses some of the successes and failures associated with the management of fixed income securities, first by presenting a case, and then by discussing some general issues associated ... More


Plato: Fallacy and Logic

Joshua Landy

in How to Do Things with Fictions

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780195188561
eISBN:
9780199949458
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195188561.003.0004
Subject:
Literature, Criticism/Theory

Plato’s character Socrates is clearly a sophisticated logician. Why then does he fall, at times, into the most elementary fallacies? It is, this chapter proposes, because the end goal for Plato is ... More


Evolutionary Emergence of Intentionality and Imagination

Dale Jacquette

in Turning Images in Philosophy, Science, and Religion: A New Book of Nature

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199563340
eISBN:
9780191731303
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199563340.003.0005
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy of Religion, Religious Studies

This chapter starts off with Darwin's theory of the evolution of species by natural selection as a naturalistic, physical, causal, scientific law-governed, supervenience basis for the physically and ... More


Why Climate-Change Skeptics Are Wrong

Kristin Shrader-Frechette

in What Will Work: Fighting Climate Change with Renewable Energy, Not Nuclear Power

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199794638
eISBN:
9780199919277
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199794638.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Chapter 1 begins by stressing the severity of climate change (CC) and showing how, contrary to popular belief, atomic energy is not a viable solution to ... More


Pessimism, Depression, and Salvation

Barbara Hannan

in The Riddle of the World: A Reconsideration of Schopenhauer's Philosophy

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195378948
eISBN:
9780199869589
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195378948.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter considers Schopenhauer's pessimism and his doctrine of salvation as denial of the will. Schopenhauer's “single thought,” the insight at the heart of his philosophy, is supposedly ... More


Bringing Capitalism Back In

Wolfgang Streeck

in Re-Forming Capitalism: Institutional Change in the German Political Economy

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199573981
eISBN:
9780191702136
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199573981.003.0018
Subject:
Business and Management, Political Economy, International Business

The notion of capitalism brings about the concept that the economy is inherently dynamic since historical social formation is defined by a certain descriptive dynamism that evolves with social ... More


Ecological Rationality: The Normative Study of Heuristics

Gerd Gigerenzer and Peter M. Todd

in Ecological Rationality: Intelligence in the World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195315448
eISBN:
9780199932429
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315448.003.0142
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

Logic and probability theory have been the traditional arbiters of the normative question of how to make good decisions, while psychology has been relegated to studying the descriptive question of ... More


Now You Know It, Now You Don't: Intellectualism, Contextualism, and Subject‐Sensitive Invariantism

Keith DeRose

in The Case for Contextualism: Knowledge, Skepticism, and Context, Vol. 1

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199564460
eISBN:
9780191721410
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199564460.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Language

Contextualism is shown to avoid certain problems, and to thereby gain an important advantage over subject-sensitive invariantism, by its ability to respect ‘intellectualism’, the thesis that ... More


The Development of a System: Adam Smith and the Physiocrats  

Andrew Stewart Skinner

in A System of Social Science: Papers Relating to Adam Smith

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198233343
eISBN:
9780191678974
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198233343.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Adam Smith's early writings on economics (apart from two short fragments on the division of labour) are contained in the two sets of lecture notes currently available to us and in the document first ... More


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