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Speaking of Fake News: Definitions and Dimensions

Romy Jaster and David Lanius

in The Epistemology of Fake News

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780198863977
eISBN:
9780191896255
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198863977.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter shows why defining “fake news” is worthwhile and what a suitable definition of “fake news” might look like. It begins by introducing the authors’ definition of “fake news” (§2) and ... More


Good News, Bad News, Fake News

Duncan Pritchard

in The Epistemology of Fake News

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780198863977
eISBN:
9780191896255
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198863977.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

An account is offered of the nature of fake news, and it is explained how this account differs from the main proposals in the contemporary philosophical literature in this regard. One key feature of ... More


An Epistemic Defense of News Abstinence

Sven Bernecker

in The Epistemology of Fake News

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780198863977
eISBN:
9780191896255
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198863977.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

If we have reason to believe that by following the news, we acquire more false beliefs than true ones or we acquire true but irrelevant beliefs, then we may be justified in taking a newsbreak. We are ... More


Fake News: A New Obsession with an Old Phenomenon?

Nicole M. Krause, Christopher D. Wirz, Dietram A. Scheufele, and Michael A. Xenos

in Journalism and Truth in an Age of Social Media

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780190900250
eISBN:
9780190900298
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190900250.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

Since Donald Trump’s surprise victory in the 2016 US presidential election, media organizations, pundits, academics, and technology leaders are panicking not only over what they see as the sudden ... More


Introduction

Sven Bernecker, Amy K. Flowerree, and Thomas Grundmann

in The Epistemology of Fake News

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780198863977
eISBN:
9780191896255
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198863977.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

News matters. Democracies need independent, fact-based news to provide a voice for a diverse range of people, to watchdog the powerful, and to keep members of a society informed. Much of the news ... More


Fake News, False Beliefs, and the Fallible Art of Knowledge Maintenance

Axel Gelfert

in The Epistemology of Fake News

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780198863977
eISBN:
9780191896255
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198863977.003.0015
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The term ‘fake news’, it is argued in this chapter, captures a novel kind of social-epistemic dysfunction that arises from systemic distortions of established processes of creating, disseminating, ... More


From Tracking to Trolling to Tribalism: Stoking Outgroup Hostility in a Transformed Media Landscape

Richard C. Fording and Sanford F. Schram

in Hard White: The Mainstreaming of Racism in American Politics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
August 2020
ISBN:
9780197500484
eISBN:
9780197500521
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197500484.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

Chapter 6 focuses on the role of a changing media landscape in disseminating misinformation to a disproportionately underinformed audience to support Donald Trump. It shows how the Trump campaign and ... More


Decoding search and partnerships across news, journalism, and social media

Cate Dowd

in Digital Journalism, Drones, and Automation: The Language and Abstractions behind the News

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
April 2020
ISBN:
9780190655860
eISBN:
9780190098445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190655860.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Semantic news tags processed via cloud servers are in amongst big data and machine learning systems. The latter may have influenced Murdoch’s acquisition of a ‘social media news agency’, and other ... More


Is Fake News Old News?

Catarina Dutilh Novaes and Jeroen de Ridder

in The Epistemology of Fake News

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780198863977
eISBN:
9780191896255
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198863977.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Do we live in a post-truth era where fake news and alternative facts run rampant? This suggestion has become a staple of recent non-fiction writing. Others disagree and suggest that contemporary fake ... More


Free speech, politics, and government

Ronald M. Baecker

in Computers and Society: Modern Perspectives

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198827085
eISBN:
9780191917318
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198827085.003.0010
Subject:
Computer Science, Human-Computer Interaction

Politics and government are undergoing dramatic changes through the advent of new technology. The early developers of community networks (mentioned in Section 1.2) had hopeful visions of ... More


Epistemic Crisis

Yochai Benkler, Robert Faris, and Hal Roberts

in Network Propaganda: Manipulation, Disinformation, and Radicalization in American Politics

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
October 2018
ISBN:
9780190923624
eISBN:
9780190923662
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190923624.003.0001
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

This chapter describes the contours of the epistemic crisis in media and politics that threatens the integrity of democratic processes, erodes trust in public institutions, and exacerbates social ... More


Canards, Fausses Nouvelles, Paranoid Style: Classic Authors for an Emerging Phenomenon

Peppino Ortoleva

in Journalism and Truth in an Age of Social Media

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780190900250
eISBN:
9780190900298
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190900250.003.0009
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

Fake news has been cyclically surfacing in the history of journalism and public opinion. In the vein of some classic authors, the chapter identifies ideas that are surprisingly useful in the present ... More


The Fake News about Fake News

David Coady

in The Epistemology of Fake News

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780198863977
eISBN:
9780191896255
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198863977.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

It is widely believed that we are facing a problem, caused by something called ‘fake news’. Governments and other powerful institutions around the world have adopted a variety of measures to restrict ... More


Electoral integrity and post-truth politics

Sarah Birch

in None past the post: Britain at the polls, 2017

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9781526133281
eISBN:
9781526138828
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9781526133281.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This chapter examines the issue of electoral integrity at the 2017 general election and in British politics more generally. While elections are generally administered to high standards and are free ... More


Fake News and Epistemic Rot; or, Why We Are All in This Together

Sanford C. Goldberg

in The Epistemology of Fake News

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780198863977
eISBN:
9780191896255
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198863977.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Fake news poses an interesting test case to theories of the epistemology of testimony. If they are to illuminate the nature of the epistemic challenges and harms fake news poses to (members of) a ... More


Big Tech’s Novel Harms: Antitrust or Regulation?

Nicolas Petit

in Big Tech and the Digital Economy: The Moligopoly Scenario

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198837701
eISBN:
9780191874291
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198837701.003.0007
Subject:
Law, Competition Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

This chapter explores policy options for novel harms like privacy, fake news, or hate speech in digital markets. The discussion shows that the novel harms allegedly inherent in big tech firms are not ... More


The Epistemology of Fake News

Sven Bernecker, Amy K. Flowerree, and Thomas Grundmann (eds)

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780198863977
eISBN:
9780191896255
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198863977.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This volume consists of a series of essays on the epistemology of fake news, written by leading philosophers. The epistemology of fake news is a branch of applied epistemology, and an exercise in ... More


Regulating Online Speech: Keeping Humans, and Human Rights, at the Core

Dinah PoKempner

in Free Speech in the Digital Age

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
March 2019
ISBN:
9780190883591
eISBN:
9780190883638
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190883591.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter argues that we are at a difficult juncture in protecting online speech and privacy when states resist applying principles they have endorsed internationally to their domestic legislation ... More


Mainstream Media Failure Modes and Self-Healing in a Propaganda-Rich Environment

Yochai Benkler, Robert Faris, and Hal Roberts

in Network Propaganda: Manipulation, Disinformation, and Radicalization in American Politics

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
October 2018
ISBN:
9780190923624
eISBN:
9780190923662
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190923624.003.0006
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

This chapter examines how mainstream media operated in a propaganda-rich environment by focusing on its failure and recovery modes. In particular, this chapter analyzes two central attributes of ... More


Mammon’s Algorithm: Marketing, Manipulation, and Clickbait on Facebook

Yochai Benkler, Robert Faris, and Hal Roberts

in Network Propaganda: Manipulation, Disinformation, and Radicalization in American Politics

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
October 2018
ISBN:
9780190923624
eISBN:
9780190923662
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190923624.003.0009
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

This chapter examines three main threats to American democracy related to Facebook: Facebook microtargeting and dark ads, behavioral manipulation by Cambridge Analytica, and political clickbait ... More


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