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Across the Boundaries: Extrapolation in Biology and Social Science

Daniel Steel

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195331448
eISBN:
9780199868063
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331448.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The biological and social sciences often generalize causal conclusions from one context to others that may differ in some relevant respects, as is illustrated by inferences from animal models to ... More


Looking Back and Ahead

Daniel P. Steel

in Across the Boundaries: Extrapolation in Biology and Social Science

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195331448
eISBN:
9780199868063
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331448.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter summarizes those that went before and ends by sketching some open questions.


Extrapolation and Its Limits

Stephen Yablo

in Aboutness

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691144955
eISBN:
9781400845989
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691144955.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

If A implies B, then is there always something that we can point to as what A adds to B? The logician, or logical engineer, says yes. The mysterian says no. To get a bead on the issue, this chapter ... More


Modeling Ecological Niches

A. Townsend Peterson, Jorge Soberón, Richard G. Pearson, Robert P. Anderson, Enrique Martínez-Meyer, Miguel Nakamura, and Miguel Bastos Araújo

in Ecological Niches and Geographic Distributions (MPB-49)

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691136868
eISBN:
9781400840670
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691136868.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter explains how environmental data can be used to create models that characterize species’ ecological niches in environmental space. It introduces a model, which is a function constructed ... More


Extrapolation and Heterogeneity

Daniel P. Steel

in Across the Boundaries: Extrapolation in Biology and Social Science

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195331448
eISBN:
9780199868063
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331448.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter introduces the general methodological challenges that confront extrapolation in the biological and social sciences, and sketches the outlines of the mechanisms approach to those ... More


Extrapolation, Capacities, and Mechanisms

Daniel P. Steel

in Across the Boundaries: Extrapolation in Biology and Social Science

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195331448
eISBN:
9780199868063
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331448.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter argues that previous accounts of extrapolation, either by reference to capacities or mechanisms, do not adequately address the challenges confronting extrapolation. It then begins the ... More


Ceteris Paribus and Extrapolation

Daniel P. Steel

in Across the Boundaries: Extrapolation in Biology and Social Science

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195331448
eISBN:
9780199868063
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331448.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter further develops the mechanisms approach to extrapolation begun in chapter 5 and explores its relevance to the hotly debated issue of ceteris paribus laws. It argues that the ... More


Mathematics

G. E. R. Lloyd

in Disciplines in the Making: Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Elites, Learning, and Innovation

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199567874
eISBN:
9780191721649
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199567874.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy

This chapter explores the different ways in which what we can call mathematical investigations have been defined and practised in different societies. It argues that there is no one route that the ... More


Epistemic Enhancers

Paul Humphreys

in Extending Ourselves: Computational Science, Empiricism, and Scientific Method

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780195158700
eISBN:
9780199785964
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195158709.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Extrapolation, conversion, and augmentation are three ways in which our natural observational and computational abilities can be extended. Examples of each are given and the possibility of and need ... More


Wishful Extrapolation from Research to Patient Care

Charles F. Manski

in Patient Care under Uncertainty

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2020
ISBN:
9780691194738
eISBN:
9780691195360
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691194738.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This chapter critiques how evidence from randomized trials has been used to inform medical decision making. Trials have long enjoyed a favored status within medical research on treatment response and ... More


‘It Is One Story’: Writing a Global Alternate History in Kim Stanley Robinson’s The Years of Rice and Salt

Chris Pak

in Sideways in Time: Critical Essays on Alternate History Fiction

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2020
ISBN:
9781789620139
eISBN:
9781789623765
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.3828/liverpool/9781789620139.003.0003
Subject:
Literature, 20th-century and Contemporary Literature

Alternative histories create a ludic space where a game of allusion, extrapolation and speculation is played. Kim Stanley Robinson’s (2002) The Years of Rice and Salt depicts a world that might have ... More


Instrumental and Experimental Considerations

Eaton E. Lattman, Thomas D. Grant, and Edward H. Snell

in Biological Small Angle Scattering: Theory and Practice

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780199670871
eISBN:
9780191749575
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199670871.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Soft Matter / Biological Physics

Thic chapter describes some of the processes that are often carried out within specific data processing software associated with an instrument but are invisible to the user. It is useful to be aware ... More


Many Paths, One Journey: Cixin Liu’s Three Body Problem Novels

Bradford Lyau

in Dis-Orienting Planets: Racial Representations of Asia in Science Fiction

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9781496811523
eISBN:
9781496811561
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Mississippi
DOI:
10.14325/mississippi/9781496811523.003.0012
Subject:
Literature, Film, Media, and Cultural Studies

Bradford Lyau, in “Many Paths, One Journey: Cixin Liu’s Three Body Problem Novels,” carefully places Cixin Liu’s Three Body trilogy within both Chinese and Western literary traditions before offering ... More


Thinking ahead

Marian Stamp Dawkins

in Through Our Eyes Only?: The Search for Animal Consciousness

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198503200
eISBN:
9780191686474
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198503200.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter begins with the most basic ideas of what is meant by thinking. It has to do with ‘working things out in the head’ and so one needs to devise some way of showing that this is what an ... More


Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Internal Energy Transfer Calculations Using Neural Network (NN) Methods

Lionel Raff, Ranga Komanduri, Martin Hagan, and Satish Bukkapatnam

in Neural Networks in Chemical Reaction Dynamics

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199765652
eISBN:
9780197563113
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199765652.003.0011
Subject:
Chemistry, Physical Chemistry

Genetic algorithms (GA), like NNs, can be used to fit highly nonlinear functional forms, such as empirical interatomic potentials from a large ensemble of data. ... More


Risk Assessment

Sigmund F. Zakrzewski (ed.)

in Environmental Toxicology

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195148114
eISBN:
9780197565629
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195148114.003.0012
Subject:
Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry

The purpose of risk assessment is estimation of the severity of harmful effects to human health and the environment that may result from exposure to chemicals present ... More


Use of optical spectroscopic methods to study the thermodynamic stability of proteins

Maurice R. Eftink and Haripada Maity

in Spectrophotometry and Spectrofluorimetry: A Practical Approach

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199638130
eISBN:
9780191918179
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199638130.003.0016
Subject:
Chemistry, Organic Chemistry

The biophysical characterization of globular proteins will almost always include some type of study of the unfolding of protein to obtain thermodynamic parameters. The ... More


Predictions by Correlations

James Wei

in Product Engineering: Molecular Structure and Properties

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195159172
eISBN:
9780197561997
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195159172.003.0010
Subject:
Chemistry, Physical Chemistry

After searching the literature and making predictions based on theory without getting sufficient satisfactory results, the next move would be to make ... More


Feed Forward Neural Networks

Lionel Raff, Ranga Komanduri, Martin Hagan, and Satish Bukkapatnam

in Neural Networks in Chemical Reaction Dynamics

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199765652
eISBN:
9780197563113
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199765652.003.0007
Subject:
Chemistry, Physical Chemistry

In this section, we want to give a brief introduction to neural networks (NNs). It is written for readers who are not familiar with neural networks but are curious ... More


Mathematics

Patrick Magee and Mark Tooley

in The Physics, Clinical Measurement and Equipment of Anaesthetic Practice for the FRCA

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199595150
eISBN:
9780191918032
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199595150.003.0005
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Anesthesiology

Graphs are used to represent pictorially or clarify a relationship between two variables, say x and y, or t and function (t). If x and y are related by the linear ... More


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