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The Possibility of Knowledge

Quassim Cassam

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199208319
eISBN:
9780191708992
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199208319.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

How is knowledge of the external world possible? How is knowledge of other minds possible? How is a priori knowledge possible? These are all examples of ‘how-possible’ questions in epistemology. In ... More


The Significance of Philosophical Scepticism

Barry Stroud

Published in print:
1984
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198247616
eISBN:
9780191598494
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198247613.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The thesis of scepticism is a thesis about the human condition: the view that we can know nothing, or that nothing is certain, or that everything is open to doubt. This book examines the sceptical ... More


The Matrix as Metaphysics

David J. Chalmers

in The Character of Consciousness

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195311105
eISBN:
9780199870851
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195311105.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter uses the movie The Matrix to address issues about our knowledge of the external world. On the face of it, the movie raises a version of Descartes' skeptical challenge. Just as I cannot ... More


External Object Foundationalism

Jack C. Lyons

in Perception and Basic Beliefs: Zombies, Modules and the Problem of the External World

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195373578
eISBN:
9780199871988
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195373578.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter is partly stage-setting. It introduces a theory called “External Object Foundationalism,” according to which some basic beliefs are beliefs about external objects and not merely beliefs ... More


Skepticism, Deception, and the Material World

Paul Russell

in The Riddle of Hume's Treatise: Skepticism, Naturalism, and Irreligion

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195110333
eISBN:
9780199872084
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195110333.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

In the early eighteenth century context there was an intimate connection between problems concerning the existence of the material world and problems of natural religion. Two issues are of particular ... More


Experiences: An Inquiry into Some Ambiguities

J. M. Hinton

Published in print:
1973
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198244035
eISBN:
9780191680717
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198244035.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Someone who has more sympathy with traditional empiricism than with much of present-day philosophy may ask himself: ‘How do my experiences give rise to my beliefs about an external world, and to what ... More


In Defense of Secular Belief

Yuval Avnur

in Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion Volume 4

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199656417
eISBN:
9780191742163
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199656417.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

This chapter discusses the idea that, even if there is no evidence or argument in favour of belief in the external world or religious belief, there is a pragmatic justification for believing in the ... More


G. E. Moore and Scepticism: ‘Internal’ and ‘External’

Barry Stroud

in The Significance of Philosophical Scepticism

Published in print:
1984
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198247616
eISBN:
9780191598494
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198247613.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

In this chapter, Stroud analyses the response to scepticism given by G. E. Moore in his famous ‘Proof of an External World’.Moore seeks to prove that the proposition that there are no external things ... More


Heidegger's Response to Skepticism in Being and Time

Edward H. Minar

in Future Pasts: The Analytic Tradition in Twentieth Century Philosophy

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195139167
eISBN:
9780199833214
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019513916X.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Section 43 of Heidegger’s Being and Time attempts to demonstrate that external world skepticism is self-defeating. Crucial to this effort is the claim that Dasein is Being-in-the-world, that we are ... More


A Classical Form of Sceptical Argument

Peter Unger

in Ignorance: A Case for Scepticism

Published in print:
1978
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198244172
eISBN:
9780191711473
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198244177.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Discusses, and expands on, the Cartesian skeptical argument. According to this argument, we do not have knowledge about the external world since we cannot know that we are not being deceived into ... More


Interaction

Karl Ameriks

in Kant's Theory of Mind: An Analysis of the Paralogisms of Pure Reason

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198238973
eISBN:
9780191597022
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198238975.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter focuses on a host of issues that are central to Kant's philosophy in general, and his understanding of the mind in particular, even though they do not correspond to the heading of a ... More


The Problem of the External World

Barry Stroud

in The Significance of Philosophical Scepticism

Published in print:
1984
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198247616
eISBN:
9780191598494
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198247613.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Chapter 1 sets out the Problem of the External World to which scepticism is a natural response: the problem, first posed by Descartes in his First Meditation, of how to show that we have any ... More


Moore’s Proof, Liberals, and Conservatives – Is There a (Wittgensteinian) Third Way? *

Annalisa Coliva

in Mind, Meaning, and Knowledge: Themes from the Philosophy of Crispin Wright

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199278053
eISBN:
9780191745386
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199278053.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language, Metaphysics/Epistemology

In this chapter a new, so-called ‘moderate’ conception of the architecture of empirical warrants is presented. The key aspect of the moderate position is that, contrary to Pryor’s ‘liberal’ one, ... More


Causes, Existence, and Ideas

Thomas C. Vinci

in Cartesian Truth

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195113297
eISBN:
9780199833825
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195113292.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

There are two main formulations of a key causal principle in the Cartesian a priori philosophical system: one, present in Meditation III, says that the cause of the representational content ... More


Introduction

Terence Cuneo

in The Normative Web: An Argument for Moral Realism

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199218837
eISBN:
9780191711749
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199218837.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter lays out the core argument of the book, which runs as follows: (1) if moral facts do not exist, then epistemic facts do not exist; (2) epistemic facts exist; (3) so, moral facts exist; ... More


Criteria, Counting, and Recounting

Stephen Mulhall

in Stanley Cavell: Philosophy's Recounting of the Ordinary

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198238508
eISBN:
9780191679643
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198238508.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Aesthetics

In Chapter 4 the treatment of Cavell's scepticism about the external world separated from his treatment of other minds — a highly artificial strategy motivated by the desire to enhance the ... More


Scepticism

Peter Poellner

in Nietzsche and Metaphysics

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198250630
eISBN:
9780191598258
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198250630.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Presents Nietzsche's critical reflections directed at traditional metaphysical categories such as the external world, substance, causation, and self. Targeted theories include the doctrine of ... More


The Theory of Natural Knowledge

Thomas C. Vinci

in Cartesian Truth

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195113297
eISBN:
9780199833825
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195113292.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Cartesian epistemology comprises three main divisions: (1) an a priori theory, discussed in Chs. 1–3, (2) a psychological theory of error explanations in judgment induced by features of our sense ... More


An a Priori Argument for Realism

Colin McGinn

in Knowledge and Reality: Selected Essays

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199251582
eISBN:
9780191598012
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199251584.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

McGinn presents an indirect, a priori argument for the conjunction of realism about the external world and realism about the mind. The argument is indirect because McGinn's principal targets are the ... More


Foundational Beliefs

David Hodgson

in Rationality + Consciousness = Free Will

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199845309
eISBN:
9780199932269
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199845309.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, General

Chapter 1 begins by considering what are my own most certain and most fundamental beliefs, and suggests that they are the most reasonable starting points for addressing questions concerning free ... More


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