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External Validity Reconsidered

Diana C. Mutz

in Population-Based Survey Experiments

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691144511
eISBN:
9781400840489
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691144511.003.0008
Subject:
Sociology, Social Research and Statistics

This chapter talks about the significance of generalizability. Experimentalists often go to great lengths to argue that student or other convenience samples are not problematic in terms of external ... More


Generalizing Randomized Controlled Trial Outcomes to Community Practice Settings

Phyllis Solomon, Mary M. Cavanaugh, and Jeffrey Draine

in Randomized Controlled Trials: Design and Implementation for Community-Based Psychosocial Interventions

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195333190
eISBN:
9780199864317
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195333190.003.0007
Subject:
Social Work, Research and Evaluation

Chapter 7 demonstrates the relevance of RCTs to building a sound, scientific basis for social work services and programs, so that social work practitioners can select the most effective interventions ... More


In Praise of Pedantic Eclecticism: Pitfalls and Opportunities in the Psychology of Judging

Dan Simon

in The Psychology of Judicial Decision Making

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195367584
eISBN:
9780199776917
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195367584.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Forensic Psychology

The Chapter deals with methodological constraints and possibilities in employing experimental psychology towards an understanding of judging. While acknowledging the concern with the ... More


Furthering Dissemination and Implementation Research: The Need for More Attention to External Validity

Lawrence W. Green and Mona Nasser

in Dissemination and Implementation Research in Health: Translating Science to Practice

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199751877
eISBN:
9780199933242
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199751877.003.0015
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter examines ways to tilt the balance of emphasis for dissemination and implementation (D&I) research in health from the preoccupation seen in most journals and systematic reviews with a ... More


Basic Concepts and Assumptions

Patrick Dattalo

in Strategies to Approximate Random Sampling and Assignment

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195378351
eISBN:
9780199864645
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195378351.003.0001
Subject:
Social Work, Research and Evaluation

This chapter defines important terms and concepts. It is assumed that readers are familiar with issues related to the appropriate application of each statistical procedure in terms of assumptions and ... More


Population-Based Survey Experiments

Diana C. Mutz

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691144511
eISBN:
9781400840489
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691144511.001.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Social Research and Statistics

Population-based survey experiments have become an invaluable tool for social scientists struggling to generalize laboratory-based results, and for survey researchers besieged by uncertainties about ... More


Limitations of Expert Psychology Testimony on Eyewitness Identification

Heather D. Flowe, Kristin M. Finklea, and Ebbe B. Ebbesen

in Expert Testimony on the Psychology of Eyewitness Identification

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195331974
eISBN:
9780199868193
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331974.003.009
Subject:
Psychology, Forensic Psychology

This chapter examines the limitations of psychological testimony on eyewitness identification. In generalizing from laboratory research to actual cases, consideration must be given to several issues, ... More


Furthering Dissemination and Implementation Research: The Need for More Attention to External Validity

Lawrence W. Green and Mona Nasser

in Dissemination and Implementation Research in Health: Translating Science to Practice

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780190683214
eISBN:
9780190683245
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190683214.003.0018
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter raises questions about the reliability of much “evidence-based practice” disseminated from the original studies and systematic reviews of those studies, insofar as they were often ... More


Predicting ‘It will work for us’: (Way) beyond statistics

Nancy Cartwright

in Causality in the Sciences

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199574131
eISBN:
9780191728921
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199574131.003.0035
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

A great deal of attention in evidence‐based policy and practice is directed to statistical studies–especially randomized controlled trials–that support causal conclusions, which this chapter dubs ... More


External Validity

Richard McCleary, David McDowall, and Bradley J. Bartos

in Design and Analysis of Time Series Experiments

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780190661557
eISBN:
9780190661595
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190661557.003.0009
Subject:
Sociology, Methodology and Statistics

A threat to external validity is any factor that limits the generalizability of an observed result. Unlike all threats to statistical conclusion and internal validities and some threats to construct ... More


Introduction

Richard McCleary, David McDowall, and Bradley J. Bartos

in Design and Analysis of Time Series Experiments

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780190661557
eISBN:
9780190661595
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190661557.003.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Methodology and Statistics

Chapter 1 introduces three categories of time series designs: descriptive, correlational, and interrupted time series designs. The evolution from a two-validity system to a four-validity system ... More


. . The Volunteer Subject 1

Robert Rosenthal and Ralph L. Rosnow

in Artifacts in Behavioral Research: Robert Rosenthal and Ralph L. Rosnow's Classic Books

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195385540
eISBN:
9780199869824
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385540.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter includes a discussion of how the use of volunteer subjects in research can affect causal inferences and generalizations, with additional emphasis on several strategies for anticipating ... More


Validity and Validation

Catherine S. Taylor

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199791040
eISBN:
9780190256074
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199791040.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This book is an introduction to validity theory and to the methods used to obtain evidence for the validity of research and assessment results. The book pulls together the best thinking from ... More


Causal Impact: From Exposures to Interventions

Daniel Westreich

in Epidemiology by Design: A Causal Approach to the Health Sciences

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780190665760
eISBN:
9780190665791
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190665760.003.0010
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology

In Chapter 9, the author discusses the causal impact framework, an approach to epidemiologic methods that can be used to move from internally valid estimates to externally valid estimates to valid ... More


1 Second-Generation Q2: Addressing Comparability and Validity

Paul Shaffer

in Q-Squared: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches in Poverty Analysis

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199676903
eISBN:
9780191756269
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199676903.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter reviews recent developments in the Q2 literature which attempted to incorporate locally meaningful definitions, weights and thresholds of poverty in ways which facilitated interpersonal ... More


Evidence, External Validity, and Explanatory Relevance

Nancy Cartwright

in Philosophy of Science Matters: The Philosophy of Peter Achinstein

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199738625
eISBN:
9780199894642
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199738625.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Evidence-based policy commends randomized controlled trials (RCTs) as gold-standard evidence for predictions about whether policies will “work” (so-called “effectiveness predictions”), and largely ... More


Design and Analysis of Time Series Experiments

Richard McCleary, David McDowall, and Bradley Bartos

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780190661557
eISBN:
9780190661595
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190661557.001.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Methodology and Statistics

Design and Analysis of Time Series Experiments develops a comprehensive set of models and methods for drawing causal inferences from time series. Example analyses of social, behavioral, and ... More


Microfinance RCTs in Development: Miracle or Mirage?

Florent Bédécarrats, Isabelle Guérin, and François Roubaud

in Randomized Control Trials in the Field of Development: A Critical Perspective

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
October 2020
ISBN:
9780198865360
eISBN:
9780191898266
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198865360.003.0009
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics, Development, Growth, and Environmental

Microcredit has long stood as a flagship topic for RCTs in development, starting with the publication of a special issue in a leading economics journal on six RCTs conducted in different world ... More


Is There a Psychology of Judging?

Frederick Schauer

in The Psychology of Judicial Decision Making

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195367584
eISBN:
9780199776917
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195367584.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Forensic Psychology

Psychologists have recently begun to study the psychological dimensions of judging, but to date almost all of the research has been on lay experimental subjects. Implicit in the research, therefore, ... More


Q2 Causal Analysis: Exploring the Drivers of Poverty Status and Dynamics 1

Paul Shaffer

in Q-Squared: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches in Poverty Analysis

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199676903
eISBN:
9780191756269
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199676903.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter examines the empirical application of the ‘conditional association’ and ‘mechanism-based’ approaches to causation. It makes a preliminary distinction between poverty status and dynamics, ... More


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