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Exposure Assessment in Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology

Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen (ed.)

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198528616
eISBN:
9780191723933
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528616.001.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The recent and rapid expansion of occupational and environmental epidemiology and health risk assessment looks set to continue in line with growing public, government, and media concern about ... More


Applications of Exposure Assessment in Epidemiology

Thomas J. Smith and David Kriebel

in A Biologic Approach to Environmental Assessment and Epidemiology

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195141566
eISBN:
9780199872145
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195141566.003.0003
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter covers a broad range of topics concerning the measurement of environmental chemical exposures. The aim is to provide a general, systematic overview and guidance for the design of ... More


Characterizing the Workplace Environment

Harvey Checkoway, Neil Pearce, and David Kriebel

in Research Methods in Occupational Epidemiology

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195092424
eISBN:
9780199864553
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195092424.003.0002
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The quality of exposure data is one of the primary determinants of research validity and informativeness in occupational epidemiology. This chapter describes approaches for assessing exposures to ... More


Characteristics of Exposure and its Measurement

Thomas J. Smith and David Kriebel

in A Biologic Approach to Environmental Assessment and Epidemiology

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195141566
eISBN:
9780199872145
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195141566.003.0002
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses the fundamental characteristics of exposure in individuals. Topics covered include the meaning of ‘exposure to a hazard’, the source-receptor model, biologically based exposure ... More


A Biologic Approach to Environmental Assessment and Epidemiology

Thomas J. Smith and David Kriebel

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195141566
eISBN:
9780199872145
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195141566.001.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Environmental chemical hazards are a highly contentious topic in modern life. Nearly every nation on earth has faced its own environmental crises, and also shares perspectives on the possibility of ... More


Risk Assessment

Annalee Yassi, Tord Kjellström, Theo de Kok, and Tee L. Guidotti

in Basic Environmental Health

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195135589
eISBN:
9780199864102
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195135589.003.0003
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter lays out the basic approach to risk assessment. Topics discussed include epidemiological methods, hazard identification in the field, the relationship between dose and health outcome, ... More


Biomarkers as Indicators of Exposure

Thomas J. Smith and David Kriebel

in A Biologic Approach to Environmental Assessment and Epidemiology

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195141566
eISBN:
9780199872145
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195141566.003.0005
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter presents an overview of the use of biomarkers in environmental assessment. Topics discussed include types of biomarkers, characteristics of biomarkers, modeling temporal variation in ... More


Risk Evaluation of Mercury Pollution

Joanna Burger and Michael Gochfeld

in Mercury in the Environment: Pattern and Process

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780520271630
eISBN:
9780520951396
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520271630.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Risk assessment is a method of evaluating harm from a stressor, such as mercury. Human risk assessment involves hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk ... More


Modeling Proportional Disease Processes

Thomas J. Smith and David Kriebel

in A Biologic Approach to Environmental Assessment and Epidemiology

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195141566
eISBN:
9780199872145
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195141566.003.0010
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter describes the key elements of proportional disease processes. Topics covered include modeling proportionality of response, reversible proportional disease processes, and irreversible ... More


Exposure surrogates: job-exposure matrices, self-reports, and expert evaluations

Kay Teschke

in Exposure Assessment in Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198528616
eISBN:
9780191723933
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528616.003.0008
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter provides a general introduction to the use of exposure surrogates, job exposure matrices, self reports, and expert evaluations for exposure in occupational and environmental ... More


Reversible Proportional Disease Processes: Effects of Ammonia and Ozone on Respiratory Symptoms

Thomas J. Smith and David Kriebel

in A Biologic Approach to Environmental Assessment and Epidemiology

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195141566
eISBN:
9780199872145
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195141566.003.0011
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter illustrates the modeling of reversible proportional disease processes using two examples. It first continues to use the simple case of ammonia leading to eye irritation that was ... More


Environment

Anders Ahlbom

in Teaching Epidemiology: A guide for teachers in epidemiology, public health and clinical medicine

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199239481
eISBN:
9780191716973
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199239481.003.007
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses, from the teacher's perspective, some methodologic aspects that are of particular importance in the application of epidemiology to environmental health problems. Many of those ... More


Disease Process Models

Thomas J. Smith and David Kriebel

in A Biologic Approach to Environmental Assessment and Epidemiology

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195141566
eISBN:
9780199872145
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195141566.003.0006
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter shows how we can use basic descriptive information about the time course of observed biological responses and reasonable estimates of the time profile of tissue concentrations to develop ... More


Dosimetry in Epidemiology

Thomas J. Smith and David Kriebel

in A Biologic Approach to Environmental Assessment and Epidemiology

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195141566
eISBN:
9780199872145
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195141566.003.0009
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses the use of biologically based models of exposure and dose in epidemiologic studies. It describes how dose metrics can be used in epidemiologic models and discusses some of the ... More


The role of geographical studies in risk assessment

L. Järup

in Spatial Epidemiology: Methods and Applications

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198515326
eISBN:
9780191723667
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515326.003.0023
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter evaluates the use of geographical information systems (GIS) in risk assessment. It shows that the use of GIS at all stages of the risk assessment process has both strengths and ... More


Exposure Assessment

Rauno Pääkkönen

in Global Occupational Health

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195380002
eISBN:
9780199893881
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195380002.003.0004
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

Occupational hazards of a physical nature may be chemical, biological and physical. Exposure assessment is the process of measuring the intensity of exposures for the purpose of identifying hazards, ... More


Analysis and modelling of personal exposure

Alex Burdorf

in Exposure Assessment in Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198528616
eISBN:
9780191723933
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528616.003.0006
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter provides a general introduction to the modeling of personal environmental exposures for occupational and environmental epidemiological studies. It discusses in detail the use of analyses ... More


Where Do We Go From Here?

Thomas J. Smith and David Kriebel

in A Biologic Approach to Environmental Assessment and Epidemiology

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195141566
eISBN:
9780199872145
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195141566.003.0016
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The previous chapters laid out a systematic approach for constructing disease process models and their related dose metrics, which can advance the integration of exposure assessment and epidemiology. ... More


Personal Exposure-Tissue Concentration Relationships

Thomas J. Smith and David Kriebel

in A Biologic Approach to Environmental Assessment and Epidemiology

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195141566
eISBN:
9780199872145
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195141566.003.0004
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses the physiologic link between external exposures and internal tissue concentrations for an exposed individual. It is possible to construct simplified descriptive toxicokinetic ... More


Risk Assessment of Carcinogenic Hazards

LESLIE T. STAYNER, PAOLO BOFFETTA, and HARRI VAINIO

in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195149616
eISBN:
9780199865062
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195149616.003.0005
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter presents a brief overview of the current concepts, methods, and controversies related to cancer risk assessment with a special emphasis on the role of epidemiologic studies. Topics ... More


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