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Parsimony and the problem of inapplicables in sequence data

Jan E. De Laet

in Parsimony, Phylogeny, and Genomics

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199297306
eISBN:
9780191713729
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199297306.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Problems can arise in parsimony analyses when data sets contain characters that are not applicable across all terminals. Examples of such characters are tail colour when some terminals lack tails, or ... More


So Where's the Explanation?

Chris Daly

in Truthmakers: The Contemporary Debate

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199283569
eISBN:
9780191712708
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199283569.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Language

Some proponents of the truthmaker principle claim that it has an explanatory power, such as that of explaining why idealism is false, or explaining the mind-independence of truth. Other proponents of ... More


The Pragmatics of Explanation 1

Bas C. van Fraassen

in The Scientific Image

Published in print:
1980
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198244271
eISBN:
9780191597473
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198244274.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Explanatory power is a complex theoretical virtue, not reducible to empirical strength or adequacy, which includes other virtues as its own preconditions. Since this virtue provides one of the main ... More


Realism in Methodology

Ilkka Niiniluoto

in Critical Scientific Realism

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199251612
eISBN:
9780191598098
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199251614.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Methodological realism accepts the axiological view that truth is one of the essential aims of science. Following Popper and Levi, truthlikeness as the aim of science, combines the goals of truth and ... More


Do the Laws of Physics State the Facts?

Nancy Cartwright

in How the Laws of Physics Lie

Published in print:
1983
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198247043
eISBN:
9780191597152
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198247044.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The facticity view of fundamental laws of physics takes them to state facts about reality. To preserve the facticity of laws in the face of complex phenomena with multiple intervening factors, ... More


Explanatory Power

Jan Sprenger and Stephan Hartmann

in Bayesian Philosophy of Science

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
October 2019
ISBN:
9780199672110
eISBN:
9780191881671
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199672110.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter motivates why, and under which circumstances, the explanatory power of a scientific hypothesis with respect to a body of evidence can be explicated by means of statistical relevance. ... More


Empiricism and Scientific Methodology

Bas C. van Fraassen

in The Scientific Image

Published in print:
1980
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198244271
eISBN:
9780191597473
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198244274.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Scientific theories do much more than answer empirical questions. This can be understood along empiricist lines only if those other aspects are instrumental for the pursuit of empirical strength and ... More


Explanation

Joseph Y. Halpern

in Actual Causality

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780262035026
eISBN:
9780262336611
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262035026.003.0007
Subject:
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence

The structural-equations framework is used to provide a definition of causal explanation. Essentially, an explanation is a fact that is not known for certain but, if found to be true, would ... More


Inference to the Best Explanation, Cleaned Up and Made Respectable

Jonah N. Schupbach

in Best Explanations: New Essays on Inference to the Best Explanation

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780198746904
eISBN:
9780191809125
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198746904.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Despite decades of focused philosophical investigation, inference to the best explanation still lacks a precise articulation and compelling defense. The primary reason for this is that it is not at ... More


The Explanatory Power of Theism: General Considerations

Richard Swinburne

in The Existence of God

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198239635
eISBN:
9780191598609
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198239637.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

Evidence e renders a hypothesis be more probable insofar as both the prior probability of b is high and its explanatory power (that is the probability of the evidence given the hypothesis divided by ... More


Why Timing Matters

Andrew R. Hom

in International Relations and the Problem of Time

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
July 2020
ISBN:
9780198850014
eISBN:
9780191884474
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198850014.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Chapter two makes the case for timing theory’s value. Timing offers a simple but powerful gestalt shift, from taking “times” as existential givens or temporalities as subjective and subordinate ... More


Naturalism and the Grounding Metaphor

Anjan Chakravartty

in Scientific Ontology: Integrating Naturalized Metaphysics and Voluntarist Epistemology

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780190651459
eISBN:
9780190651480
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190651459.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter develops the notion of degrees of metaphysical inference, giving content to a number of widely used but only vaguely specified metaphors regarding what it could mean to “naturalize” ... More


What Can the Conjunction Fallacy Tell Us about Human Reasoning?

Katya Tentori

in Human-Like Machine Intelligence

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
August 2021
ISBN:
9780198862536
eISBN:
9780191895333
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198862536.003.0022
Subject:
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence

This chapter briefly summarizes some the main results obtained from more than three decades of studies on the conjunction fallacy. It shows that this striking and widely discussed reasoning error is ... More


Understanding Institutional Diversity

David Skarbek

in The Puzzle of Prison Order: Why Life Behind Bars Varies Around the World

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
July 2020
ISBN:
9780190672492
eISBN:
9780190090234
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190672492.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Chapter 8 summarizes the main empirical implications discussed in the governance theory. It points toward public policy options for reshaping prison social order and also argues that prison ... More


Who’s Afraid of Supervenient Laws?

Lee Mcintyre

in Essays in the Philosophy of Chemistry

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780190494599
eISBN:
9780197559666
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190494599.003.0011
Subject:
Chemistry, Theoretical Chemistry

OVER THE LAST FEW decades there has been much debate in the philosophy of science over the attractiveness—and potential costs—of supervenience. As philosophers well know, supervenience burst onto ... More


Passion, curiosity and integrity

Beverley Skeggs

in Sociologists' Tales: Contemporary narratives on sociological thought and practice

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9781447318668
eISBN:
9781447318682
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447318668.003.0005
Subject:
Sociology, Occupations, Professions, and Work

In a world where metrics and quantification become the measure of our value, it is important to remind ourselves of our values. Why do we do sociology, but also what does sociology do to us? Do we ... More


A Farewell to Hume

Andrew Steane

in Science and Humanity: A Humane Philosophy of Science and Religion

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
July 2018
ISBN:
9780198824589
eISBN:
9780191863370
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198824589.003.0014
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

A well-known argument of David Hume is presented and refuted. The argument concerns the notion that the natural world may be self-contained, for all we know, and religious claims are superfluous. ... More


Scientific Ontology: Integrating Naturalized Metaphysics and Voluntarist Epistemology

Anjan Chakravartty

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780190651459
eISBN:
9780190651480
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190651459.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Both science and philosophy are interested in questions of ontology—questions about what exists and what these things are like. Science and philosophy, however, seem like very different ways of ... More


Analysing African Ethics

Thaddeus Metz

in A Relational Moral Theory: African Ethics in and beyond the Continent

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
December 2021
ISBN:
9780198748960
eISBN:
9780191811586
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198748960.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Chapter 3 spells out the analytic method used in Part II to evaluate theories of right action suggested by the African tradition. The central criteria invoked to ascertain whether a general moral ... More


Arguments for Combinations’ and Coalitions’ Duties

Stephanie Collins

in Group Duties: Their Existence and Their Implications for Individuals

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780198840275
eISBN:
9780191875762
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198840275.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter examines six arguments in favour of the idea that combinations and coalitions are apt to bear duties. The first five arguments assert that combinations’ or coalitions’ duties are the ... More


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