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Interpersonal Expectations: Effects of the Experimenter's Hypothesis 1

Robert Rosenthal

in Artifacts in Behavioral Research: Robert Rosenthal and Ralph L. Rosnow's Classic Books

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195385540
eISBN:
9780199869824
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385540.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Artifacts not directly associated with the interaction between the experimenter and the research subjects include interpreter and observer biases, whereas interactional artifacts include biosocial ... More


Behavioral Variables

Robert Rosenthal

in Artifacts in Behavioral Research: Robert Rosenthal and Ralph L. Rosnow's Classic Books

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195385540
eISBN:
9780199869824
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385540.003.0023
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

In Chapter 14, a number of experimenter characteristics were shown to be related to the operation of experimenter expectancy effects. The particular characteristics discussed could all be assessed ... More


Communication of Experimenter Expectancy

Robert Rosenthal

in Artifacts in Behavioral Research: Robert Rosenthal and Ralph L. Rosnow's Classic Books

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195385540
eISBN:
9780199869824
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385540.003.0024
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter addresses the question: How does the experimenter inform his subject what it is he expects the subject to do? Data from several studies including the leisurely analysis of films suggests ... More


Experimenter Behavior

Robert Rosenthal

in Artifacts in Behavioral Research: Robert Rosenthal and Ralph L. Rosnow's Classic Books

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195385540
eISBN:
9780199869824
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385540.003.0028
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

In Chapter 19, some techniques for the control of experimenter expectancy effects were suggested which depended on the determination of experimenter behavior, expectancy, and other attributes before ... More


Excessive Rewards

Robert Rosenthal

in Artifacts in Behavioral Research: Robert Rosenthal and Ralph L. Rosnow's Classic Books

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195385540
eISBN:
9780199869824
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385540.003.0021
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter considers the effects of the experimenter's motives on the operation of expectancy effects. It describes experiments involving individual subjects and subjects in groups to investigate ... More


Structural Variables

Robert Rosenthal

in Artifacts in Behavioral Research: Robert Rosenthal and Ralph L. Rosnow's Classic Books

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195385540
eISBN:
9780199869824
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385540.003.0022
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter addresses the following questions: Are there some experimenters who, more than others, unintentionally affect the results of their research? Are there some subjects who, more than ... More


The Generality and Assessment of Experimenter Effects

Robert Rosenthal

in Artifacts in Behavioral Research: Robert Rosenthal and Ralph L. Rosnow's Classic Books

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195385540
eISBN:
9780199869824
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385540.003.0025
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter begins with a discussion of the generality of experimenter effects. It presents more formal definitions of certain operating characteristics of the experimenter. It then considers the ... More


Experimenter Sampling

Robert Rosenthal

in Artifacts in Behavioral Research: Robert Rosenthal and Ralph L. Rosnow's Classic Books

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195385540
eISBN:
9780199869824
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385540.003.0027
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Much of this book has been devoted to showing that an experimenter's expectancy may be an unintended determinant of the results of his research. This chapter addresses the question of what can be ... More


Personnel Considerations

Robert Rosenthal

in Artifacts in Behavioral Research: Robert Rosenthal and Ralph L. Rosnow's Classic Books

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195385540
eISBN:
9780199869824
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385540.003.0029
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

In the last two chapters suggestions were made which were designed to help control experimenter expectancy effects in specific experiments. Drawing upon some of the suggestions made earlier, this ... More


Blind and Minimized Contact

Robert Rosenthal

in Artifacts in Behavioral Research: Robert Rosenthal and Ralph L. Rosnow's Classic Books

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195385540
eISBN:
9780199869824
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385540.003.0030
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter begins with a discussion of the blind contact strategy for psychological research. It then proposes that if we could eliminate experimenter-subject contact altogether it would seem that ... More


Expectancy Control Groups

Robert Rosenthal

in Artifacts in Behavioral Research: Robert Rosenthal and Ralph L. Rosnow's Classic Books

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195385540
eISBN:
9780199869824
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385540.003.0031
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

The previous chapter discussed strategies which attempt to minimize experimenter expectancy effects. This chapter discusses a strategy which essentially attempts to maximize experimenter expectancy ... More


Artifacts in Behavioral Research: Robert Rosenthal and Ralph L. Rosnow's Classic Books

Robert Rosenthal and Ralph L. Rosnow

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195385540
eISBN:
9780199869824
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385540.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This book is really three-books-in-one, dealing with the topic of artifacts in behavioral research. It is about the problems of experimenter effects which have not been solved. Experimenters still ... More


Suspiciousness of Experimenter's Intent

William J. McGuire

in Artifacts in Behavioral Research: Robert Rosenthal and Ralph L. Rosnow's Classic Books

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195385540
eISBN:
9780199869824
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385540.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Three stages in the life of an artifact are (a) ignorance of its existence, (b) coping with the artifact, and (c) exploiting it for what it can tell us about human behavior. This chapter focuses on ... More


Biosocial Attributes

Robert Rosenthal

in Artifacts in Behavioral Research: Robert Rosenthal and Ralph L. Rosnow's Classic Books

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195385540
eISBN:
9780199869824
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385540.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter discusses the effects of experimenters that operate by influencing the events or behaviors under study. Topics covered include the experimenter's sex, experimenter's age, experimenter's ... More


Psychosocial Attributes

Robert Rosenthal

in Artifacts in Behavioral Research: Robert Rosenthal and Ralph L. Rosnow's Classic Books

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195385540
eISBN:
9780199869824
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385540.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

The experimenter attributes discussed in Chapter 4 were all readily assessable by inspection. This chapter discusses experimenter attributes which are also readily assessable, but not simply by ... More


Situational Factors

Robert Rosenthal

in Artifacts in Behavioral Research: Robert Rosenthal and Ralph L. Rosnow's Classic Books

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195385540
eISBN:
9780199869824
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385540.003.0014
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

More than an experimenter's score on a test of anxiety, his status and warmth are defined and determined in part by the nature of the experimental situation and the particular subject being ... More


Experimenter Modeling

Robert Rosenthal

in Artifacts in Behavioral Research: Robert Rosenthal and Ralph L. Rosnow's Classic Books

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195385540
eISBN:
9780199869824
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385540.003.0015
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter discusses an “attribute” of the experimenter which, like those considered just before, is also defined in terms of the particular experiment being conducted. That attribute is the ... More


Human Subjects

Robert Rosenthal

in Artifacts in Behavioral Research: Robert Rosenthal and Ralph L. Rosnow's Classic Books

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195385540
eISBN:
9780199869824
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385540.003.0017
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

The evidence presented up to this point that the expectancy of the experimenter may in part determine the results of his research has been at least somewhat equivocal. Some of the evidence has been ... More


Animal Subjects

Robert Rosenthal

in Artifacts in Behavioral Research: Robert Rosenthal and Ralph L. Rosnow's Classic Books

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195385540
eISBN:
9780199869824
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385540.003.0018
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

In Chapter 9 a question was raised as to the generality of the effects of the experimenter's expectancy. This chapter describes experiments designed to extend the generality of these effects. It was ... More


Subject Set

Robert Rosenthal

in Artifacts in Behavioral Research: Robert Rosenthal and Ralph L. Rosnow's Classic Books

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195385540
eISBN:
9780199869824
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385540.003.0019
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter discusses various subject sets as they complicate the effects of the experimenter's expectancy. The experiments described have served in part to extend the generality of the effects of ... More


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