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Properties, Modes, and Universals

E. J. Lowe

in The Four-Category Ontology: A Metaphysical Foundation for Natural Science

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780199254392
eISBN:
9780191603600
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199254397.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The distinction between properties and predicates, and how best to draw the distinction between universals and particulars are discussed. The notion that properties are most aptly characterized as ... More


Emergence and Downward Causation

Cynthia Macdonald and Graham Macdonald

in Emergence in Mind

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199583621
eISBN:
9780191723483
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199583621.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

The principal charge against any emergentist account of the nature of mind is that it leads to incoherence because it is committed to ‘downward’ causation, and it is this charge that this chapter ... More


Identity with a Difference: Comments on Macdonald and Macdonald

Peter Wyss

in Emergence in Mind

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199583621
eISBN:
9780191723483
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199583621.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

This chapter explores a striking similarity between the Macdonalds' property exemplification account and S. Alexander's ‘identity doctrine’. Both approaches relate the distinctiveness of emergent ... More


Self‐Description

J.T. Ismael

in The Situated Self

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195174366
eISBN:
9780199872121
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195174366.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter introduces the descriptive analogue of self-location. It argues that if a language contains predicates that apply to the properties it exemplifies, and it contains reflexive expressions ... More


Object and Word

Samuel Guttenplan

in Objects of Metaphor

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780199280896
eISBN:
9780191602627
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199280894.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

Beginning with Nelson Goodman’s notion of exemplification, the possibility of using non-word objects (where ‘objects’ include events, states of affairs, situations and the like) to fulfil the ... More


The Third Man

John Malcolm

in Plato on the Self-Predication of Forms: Early and Middle Dialogues

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198239062
eISBN:
9780191679827
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198239062.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy

This chapter undertakes some observations of the Third Man Argument (TMA). Although the two basic assumptions upon which the TMA rests are inconsistent — for by Non-Identity the Form is not an ... More


Distinguishing particulars from universals

Douglas Ehring

in Tropes: Properties, Objects, and Mental Causation

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199608539
eISBN:
9780191729607
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199608539.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This chapter focuses on the distinction between universals and particulars. It begins with an examination of attempts to characterize this distinction that center on the notion of instantiation or ... More


Why believe in tropes?

Douglas Ehring

in Tropes: Properties, Objects, and Mental Causation

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199608539
eISBN:
9780191729607
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199608539.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This chapter presents an argument for the existence of tropes. It begins with a brief catalogue of previous arguments for tropes and then launches into a new argument for their existence. It is, ... More


Facts: Particulars or Information Units? *

Angelika Kratzer

in Modals and Conditionals: New and Revised Perspectives

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199234684
eISBN:
9780191738432
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199234684.003.0006
Subject:
Linguistics, Semantics and Pragmatics, Theoretical Linguistics

The chapter documents the role of facts in producing Gettier puzzles for factive constructions. Gettier puzzles are typically discussed with knowledge ascriptions, but Gettier puzzles can be ... More


Reconfiguring the Realm

Catherine Z. Elgin

in True Enough

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780262036535
eISBN:
9780262341370
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036535.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Here Elgin sketches the main themes of True Enough. Although effective scientific models and thought experiments are not true, they embody a genuine understanding of the phenomena they concern. Works ... More


From Knowledge to Understanding

Catherine Z. Elgin

in True Enough

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780262036535
eISBN:
9780262341370
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036535.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

In order to accommodate science, epistemology should focus on understanding rather than knowledge. Understanding is holistic and nonfactive. It involves knowing how to reason with, and perhaps how to ... More


Exemplification in Understanding

Catherine Z. Elgin

in True Enough

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780262036535
eISBN:
9780262341370
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036535.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Exemplification is the semantic device that connects samples and examples to their objects. They highlight features, making them manifest. Exemplars thus afford epistemic access to features of things ... More


Embodied Understanding

Catherine Z. Elgin

in True Enough

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780262036535
eISBN:
9780262341370
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036535.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Dances, although not truth-apt, embody and advance understanding via exemplification. They highlight features and underscore their significance. Being symbols, dances require interpretation. ... More


Casting in Bold Relief

Catherine Z. Elgin

in True Enough

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780262036535
eISBN:
9780262341370
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036535.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Laboratory experiments, thought experiments, and literary fictions are felicitous falsehoods. They distance themselves from the facts they bear on to screen out irrelevant, potentially confounding ... More


Chekhov’s Gun

Catherine Z. Elgin

in True Enough

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780262036535
eISBN:
9780262341370
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036535.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Epistemically effective models are felicitous falsehoods. Via representation-as, they exemplify features and impute them to their targets. A model may reconfigure a domain, drawing new boundaries to ... More


Borders and Crossings

Catherine Z. Elgin

in True Enough

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780262036535
eISBN:
9780262341370
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036535.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Disciplinary understanding is answerable to normative and methodological demands. This raises the question whether a work in one discipline can also belong to another. Can works of art, functioning ... More


Reflexivity: One Step Up

in Unhastening Science: Autonomy and Reflexivity in the Social theory of Knowledge

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780853236382
eISBN:
9781846314322
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.5949/liverpool/9780853236382.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This chapter defends a view of reflexivity called ‘one step up’. This exercise aims at freeing some initial conceptual space between two unattractive epistemological alternatives: the ‘flat’ or ... More


Character’s Conduct: Spaces of Interethnic Emulation in Jane Addams’s “Charitable Effort”

James B. Salazar

in Bodies of Reform: The Rhetoric of Character in Gilded Age America

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814741306
eISBN:
9780814786536
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814741306.003.0005
Subject:
Society and Culture, Cultural Studies

This chapter takes up the problems of emulation and exemplification in the reform of character by examining Jane Addams's critique and rearticulation of the character-forming effects of the class ... More


Of Rabbits and Men: Fiction and Scientific Modeling

Roman Frigg and Fiora Salis

in Fictionalism in Philosophy

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9780190689605
eISBN:
9780190689636
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190689605.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics, Philosophy of Language

According to the fiction view of models, scientific models are akin to places and characters in literary fiction. The chapter introduces this view and develops a specific version of the view based on ... More


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