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Gödel’s incompleteness theorems, free will and mathematical thought

SOLOMON FEFERMAN

in Free Will and Modern Science

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780197264898
eISBN:
9780191754074
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264898.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

The determinism-free will debate is perhaps as old as philosophy itself and has been engaged in from a great variety of points of view including those of scientific, theological, and logical ... More


Contradiction

Graham Priest

in Doubt Truth to be a Liar

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780199263288
eISBN:
9780191603631
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199263280.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter provides an account of the nature of negation which not only endorses the traditional idea of negation as a contradictory-forming operator, but also allows for the possibility of ... More


Representing Excluded Interests

Robert E. Goodin

in Reflective Democracy

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199256174
eISBN:
9780191599354
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199256179.003.0010
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

Democratic inclusion used to be regarded as mainly a matter of expanding the franchise: if democracy was viewed as a merely mechanical process of taking a vote, aggregating votes, and declaring a ... More


Living With Difference

Charles Taylor

in Debating Democracy's Discontent: Essays on American Politics, Law, and Public Philosophy

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294962
eISBN:
9780191598708
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198294964.003.0018
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

There is a way of going about arbitrating a difference, not by finding a procedural principle, which will adjudicate it once and for all, but by confronting the identity needs and the demands of ... More


Saving Truth From Paradox

Hartry Field

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199230747
eISBN:
9780191710933
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230747.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

The book is an opinionated survey of philosophical work on paradoxes of truth and of related notions, such as property-instantiation, with occasional forays into related topics such as vagueness, the ... More


The Catuṣkoṭi or Tetralemma

Jan Westerhoff

in Nagarjuna's Madhyamaka: A Philosophical Introduction

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195375213
eISBN:
9780199871360
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195375213.003.0004
Subject:
Religion, Buddhism

The tetralemma or catuṣkoṭi constitutes a form of argument frequently encountered in Nāgārjuna’s works. It usually consists of the rejection of all of the following: a thesis, its negation, the ... More


Laws of Non-Contradiction, Laws of the Excluded Middle, and Logics *

Greg Restall

in The Law of Non-Contradiction

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199265176
eISBN:
9780191713989
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199265176.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

There is widespread acknowledgement that the law of non-contradiction (LNC) is an important logical principle. However, there is less-than-universal agreement on exactly what the law amounts to. This ... More


Idealization Naturalized

Alan Weir

in Truth Through Proof: A Formalist Foundation for Mathematics

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199541492
eISBN:
9780191594915
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199541492.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

Idealization in grammar is taken as a starting point. Grammatical theory is interpreted as an ‘injective idealization’, from the fragmentary corpus of concrete utterances into an infinite ... More


Fractured Porous Media

Pierre M. Adler, Jean-François Thovert, and Valeri V. Mourzenko

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199666515
eISBN:
9780191748639
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199666515.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This book aims to estimate the macroscopic properties of fractures, fracture networks and fractured porous media from easily measurable quantities. Attention is focused on geological media where ... More


Only the Ball Was White: A History of Legendary Black Players and All-Black Professional Teams

Robert Peterson

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195076370
eISBN:
9780199853786
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195076370.001.0001
Subject:
History, Cultural History

Early in the 1920s, the New York Giants sent a scout to watch a young Cuban play for Foster's American Giants, a baseball club in the Negro Leagues. The scout liked what he saw, but was disappointed ... More


SAM EDWARDS AND THE STATISTICAL MECHANICS OF RUBBER

Paul M. Goldbart and Nigel Goldenfeld

in Stealing the Gold: A celebration of the pioneering physics of Sam Edwards

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198528531
eISBN:
9780191713415
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528531.003.0019
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The statistical mechanics of cross-linked macromolecules requires simultaneous treatment of random polymer configurations, excluded-volume interactions, and the quenched disorder of the cross-links, ... More


Addressing Primary and Secondary Education for Socially Excluded Girls 1

Marlaine Lockheed and Maureen Lewis

in Lessons in Educational Equality: Successful Approaches to Intractable Problems Around the World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199755011
eISBN:
9780199918867
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199755011.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

The largest challenge remaining to achieve universal primary and secondary education is that of socially excluded girls. Raising the availability and quality of schools for all socially disadvantaged ... More


Social inequalities at the end of life

Jonathan Koffman

in A Public Health Perspective on End of Life Care

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199599400
eISBN:
9780191739170
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199599400.003.0078
Subject:
Palliative Care, Patient Care and End-of-Life Decision Making, Palliative Medicine Research

This chapter appraises the evidence, principally from the UK and the USA, to determine in which ways the ‘socially excluded’ — the poor, black, and minority ethnic (BME) groups, asylum seekers and ... More


The Competition for ‘Closest’

Jonathan Bennett

in A Philosophical Guide to Conditionals

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199258871
eISBN:
9780191597046
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199258872.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

Discussion of the idea that there is never a closest antecedent world, and the opposing ‘limit assumption’ that says that there are limits to how fine grained a respect of world comparison can be. ... More


Unrolling from the Antecedent Time

Jonathan Bennett

in A Philosophical Guide to Conditionals

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199258871
eISBN:
9780191597046
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199258872.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

Defends the view that for the evaluation of a subjunctive conditional, the closeness of an antecedent world depends upon how much it resembles the actual world up to the time of the antecedent. ... More


Wittgenstein and Intuitionism

Robert J. Fogelin

in Philosophical Interpretations

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195071627
eISBN:
9780199833221
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019507162X.003.0015
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This essay explores one important strain that runs through Wittgenstein's Remarks on the Foundations of Mathematics: his commitment to themes characteristic of the intuitionist movement in logic and ... More


Object and Truth: A Realist Manifesto

Stewart Shapiro

in Philosophy of Mathematics: Structure and Ontology

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195139303
eISBN:
9780199833658
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195139305.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

Several varieties of realism are distinguished. Working realism is a methodological thesis that sanctions the inferences and principles suggested by traditional realism: excluded middle, the axiom of ... More


Indeterminacy, Degree of Belief, and Excluded Middle

Hartry Field

in Truth and the Absence of Fact

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199242894
eISBN:
9780191597381
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199242895.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Discusses the question of how to reconcile the acceptance of indeterminacy in one's own language with the acceptance of a minimal notion of truth. Argues that regarding a sentence of one's own ... More


Nietzsche on Tragedy

Robert R. Williams

in Tragedy, Recognition, and the Death of God: Studies in Hegel and Nietzsche

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199656059
eISBN:
9780191744846
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199656059.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

This chapter examines Nietzsche’s treatment of the tragic myth and break with Schopenhauer’s pessimism, his thesis that tragedy is a synthesis of Apollinian and Dionysian elements, and the problem of ... More


The Decline of Property and Trust

M. W. Lau

in The Economic Structure of Trusts: Towards a Property-based Approach

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199602407
eISBN:
9780191725203
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199602407.003.0007
Subject:
Law, Trusts

This chapter charts the decline of property and trust in legal and economic thinking. It explains that the economic analysis of property does not consider property to be a coherent concept. Instead, ... More


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