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Systems of exchange

Chris Wickham

in Framing the Early Middle Ages: Europe and the Mediterranean, 400—800

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199264490
eISBN:
9780191698934
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199264490.003.0011
Subject:
History, European Medieval History

This chapter discusses the presentation of the patterns of and the changes in exchange, based largely on archaeology, in particular on ceramic distributions. It argues that ceramics are the firmest ... More


Living and Dying with Hard Pegs: The Rise and Fall of Argentina's Currency Board

Augusto de la Torre, Eduardo Levy Yeyati, and Sergio L. Schmukler

in Monetary Unions and Hard Pegs: Effects on Trade, Financial Development, and Stability

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
August 2004
ISBN:
9780199271405
eISBN:
9780191601200
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199271402.003.0011
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic Systems

The rise and fall of Argentina’s currency board illustrates the extent to which the advantages of hard pegs have been overstated. The currency board did not promote fiscal or monetary discipline, and ... More


Niches and Status in the Firm: A Specific Exchange System

Lazega Emmanuel

in The Collegial Phenomenon: The Social Mechanisms of Cooperation Among Peers in a Corporate Law Partnership

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199242726
eISBN:
9780191697166
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199242726.003.0004
Subject:
Business and Management, Organization Studies, HRM / IR

This chapter seeks to identify the social niches and the forms of status that could be found in the firm and test for the existence of the first mechanism that helped members manage their social ... More


Monetary Unions and Hard Pegs: Effects on Trade, Financial Development, and Stability

Volbert Alexander, George M. von Furstenberg, and Jacques Mélitz (eds)

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
August 2004
ISBN:
9780199271405
eISBN:
9780191601200
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199271402.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic Systems

Financial services with global reach are a highly information-intensive business. In it, the ability to deliver reliable price formation, global liquidity, and network benefits is increasingly ... More


Euroization, Dollarization, and the International Monetary System

Dominick Salvatore

in Monetary Unions and Hard Pegs: Effects on Trade, Financial Development, and Stability

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
August 2004
ISBN:
9780199271405
eISBN:
9780191601200
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199271402.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic Systems

A great debate has been taking place in many nations, especially small ones, in Central, Eastern, and Southern Europe, in the Baltic States, and in the Americas on the need and benefits of abandoning ... More


Too Many Chefs?

Lazega Emmanuel

in The Collegial Phenomenon: The Social Mechanisms of Cooperation Among Peers in a Corporate Law Partnership

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199242726
eISBN:
9780191697166
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199242726.003.0006
Subject:
Business and Management, Organization Studies, HRM / IR

The solidarity provided to members through a generalized exchange system in social niches is fragile, and status competition is a threat to the existence of such a positive social mechanism. This ... More


SDRs and the negotiation of the Second Amendment to the Fund's Articles of Agreement

Christopher M.D. Wilkie

in Special Drawing Rights (SDRs): The First International Money

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199606467
eISBN:
9780191731648
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199606467.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

The Second Amendment to the IMF Articles of Agreement (the Jamaica Agreement) did much more than simply legalize the floating exchange rate system. Of fundamental importance were decisions to ... More


Highland Traders and Indian Hunters

Colin G. Calloway

in White People, Indians, and Highlanders: Tribal People and Colonial Encounters in Scotland and America

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195340129
eISBN:
9780199867202
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195340129.003.0006
Subject:
History, American History: early to 18th Century

Scots were ubiquitous in the North American fur trade. From the deerskin trade of the Southeast to their domination of the North West and Hudson Bay Companies in the North, they came into close ... More


A Brief History of the International Monetary System since Bretton Woods

José Antonio Ocampo

in Resetting the International Monetary (Non)System

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780198718116
eISBN:
9780191787478
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198718116.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics, Development, Growth, and Environmental

The 1944 Bretton Woods Conference, which created the International Monetary Fund and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, was a major landmark in international cooperation. ... More


Global Monetary Cooperation and the Exchange Rate System

José Antonio Ocampo

in Resetting the International Monetary (Non)System

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780198718116
eISBN:
9780191787478
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198718116.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter looks at historical and current frameworks to manage macroeconomic linkages among economies. The basic objective of cooperation in this area is to guarantee the consistency of the ... More


Globalization and the Logic of International Collective Action: Re-examining the Bretton Woods Institutions

Joseph E. Stiglitz

in Governing Globalization: Issues and Institutions

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199254033
eISBN:
9780191698187
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199254033.003.0009
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

The fixed exchange rate system had been abandoned back in 1971, raising questions at that time about the role of the International Monetary Fund. However, the abandonment of the fixed exchange rate ... More


Exchange Rate Regime Classifications

Michael W. Klein and Jay C. Shambaugh

in Exchange Rate Regimes in the Modern Era

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262013659
eISBN:
9780262259002
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262013659.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This chapter first discusses the Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions (EAER) of the IMF and how this classification scheme is a reflection of the handling of exchange ... More


Exchange Rate Regimes

Sebastian Edwards, Domingo F. Cavallo, Arminio Fraga, and Jacob A. Frenkel

in Economic and Financial Crises in Emerging Market Economies

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226241098
eISBN:
9780226241104
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226241104.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

This chapter analyzes the relationship between exchange rate regimes, capital flows, and currency crises in emerging economies in the context of the implementation of a new financial architecture. It ... More


A Semisecret Negotiation, Late March–Mid-July 1978

Emmanuel Mourlon-Druol

in A Europe Made of Money: The Emergence of the European Monetary System

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801450839
eISBN:
9780801465932
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801450839.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, European Union

This chapter examines the quest for a new philosophy of the European Economic Community (EEC) exchange rate system, from Helmut Schmidt's “exotic idea” of late March 1978 to the publication of the ... More


Shifting away from the Werner Approach, May 1974–May 1975

Emmanuel Mourlon-Druol

in A Europe Made of Money: The Emergence of the European Monetary System

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801450839
eISBN:
9780801465932
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801450839.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, European Union

This chapter examines how the Western European governments and the European Economic Community (EEC) itself tried to move on after the failure of the Werner Plan, starting with the 1974–1975 ... More


Chasing the Ghosts of Failed Negotiations, Mid-July–Late September 1978

Emmanuel Mourlon-Druol

in A Europe Made of Money: The Emergence of the European Monetary System

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801450839
eISBN:
9780801465932
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801450839.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, European Union

This chapter examines the European Monetary System (EMS) negotiations from the Bremen European Council until late September 1978, when the debate over the role of the European Currency Unit in the ... More


A False Start, October 1978–March 1979

Emmanuel Mourlon-Druol

in A Europe Made of Money: The Emergence of the European Monetary System

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801450839
eISBN:
9780801465932
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801450839.003.0009
Subject:
Political Science, European Union

This chapter focuses on the end of the European Monetary System (EMS) negotiations and the launch of the new exchange rate system. The discussion covers the second and last phase of the negotiations, ... More


Debt, land and money: from Polanyi to the new economic archaeology

Michael Hudson

in Karl Polanyi and twenty-first-century capitalism

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9781526127884
eISBN:
9781526155450
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7765/9781526127891.00010
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

Polanyi spoke of the commodification of money, and this chapter focuses on how interest-bearing debt became the major dynamic, also contributing to the commodification of land and labor. By the late ... More


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