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Patents and Welfare in an Evolutionary Model

Sidney G. Winter

in Understanding Industrial and Corporate Change

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199269426
eISBN:
9780191710179
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199269426.003.0012
Subject:
Business and Management, Organization Studies

This chapter inquires into the role of patents and the appropriate duration of patent protection with regard to defining property rights in productive knowledge. Utilizing the formal model of ... More


What is the rationale for ‘Ockham's razor’ (a.k.a. parsimony) in phylogenetic inference?

Arnold G. Kluge

in Parsimony, Phylogeny, and Genomics

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199297306
eISBN:
9780191713729
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199297306.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Philosophers continue to debate the meaning and rationale behind ‘Ockham's razor’. Two formally distinct justifications for parsimony can be distinguished: one that recommends positing as few ... More


Parsimony and its presuppositions

Elliott Sober

in Parsimony, Phylogeny, and Genomics

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199297306
eISBN:
9780191713729
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199297306.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The use of a principle of parsimony in phylogenetic inference is both widespread and controversial. It is controversial because biologists, who view phylogenetic inference as first and foremost a ... More


Property Rights and Information Flows: A Simulation Approach

Max H. Boisot, Ian C. MacMillan, and Kyeong Seok Han

in Explorations in Information Space: Knowledge, Actors, and Firms

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199250875
eISBN:
9780191719509
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199250875.003.0007
Subject:
Business and Management, Knowledge Management

With the growth of the information economy, the proportion of knowledge-intensive goods to total goods is constantly increasing. Lawrence Lessig has argued that IPRs have now become too favourable to ... More


Parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetics

Pablo A. Goloboff and Diego Pol

in Parsimony, Phylogeny, and Genomics

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199297306
eISBN:
9780191713729
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199297306.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The intent of a statistically-based phylogenetic method is to estimate tree topologies and values of possibly relevant parameters, as well as the uncertainty inherent in those estimations. A method ... More


Formal Evolutionary Modeling for Political Scientists

Oleg Smirnov and Tim Johnson

in Man Is by Nature a Political Animal: Evolution, Biology, and Politics

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780226319094
eISBN:
9780226319117
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226319117.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This chapter presents an evolutionary game theoretic model to explore distinct arenas of human political behavior. Using civic involvement and political corruption as an example, it shows how an ... More


Are Pleiotropic Mutations and Holocene Selective Sweeps the Only Evolutionary-genetic Processes Left for Explaining Heritable Variation in Human Psychological Traits?

Geoffrey F. Miller

in The Evolution of Personality and Individual Differences

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195372090
eISBN:
9780199893485
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195372090.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter proposes that the field of evolutionary psychology must take seriously the notion that evolution has accelerated during the Holocene. This rapid recent evolution might call into question ... More


Using phylogeny to understand genomic evolution

David A. Liberles

in Parsimony, Phylogeny, and Genomics

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199297306
eISBN:
9780191713729
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199297306.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

As genome sequencing projects have propagated, comparative genomics has emerged as a method of choice for understanding protein function. There are simple approaches for comparing sequences, like ... More


Detecting Patterns of Trait Evolution

Marc W. Cadotte and T. Jonathan Davies

in Phylogenies in Ecology: A Guide to Concepts and Methods

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780691157689
eISBN:
9781400881192
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691157689.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter examines a variety of methods for detecting the patterns of evolution of a certain trait. It first considers common metrics for evaluating phylogenetic signal and compares fit of ... More


Mathematical Models of Social Evolution: A Guide for the Perplexed

Richard McElreath and Robert Boyd

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226558264
eISBN:
9780226558288
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226558288.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Over the last several decades, mathematical models have become central to the study of social evolution, both in biology and the social sciences. But students in these disciplines often seriously ... More


Equilibrium models vs. evolutionary economic models

Lawrence A. Boland

in Equilibrium Models in Economics: Purposes and Critical Limitations

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780190274320
eISBN:
9780190274368
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190274320.003.0012
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

This chapter examines the extent to which models based on evolutionary economics can provide a worthy alternative to neoclassical equilibrium models. The chapter discusses the difference between ... More


Innovation and Population

Tim Lewens

in Functions in Biological and Artificial Worlds: Comparative Philosophical Perspectives

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262113212
eISBN:
9780262255271
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262113212.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies

This chapter illustrates that even with the theories, which are based on typology, the inclusion of population level factors is indispensable in explaining evolutionary processes. It concentrates on ... More


Physics Avoidance

Mark Wilson

in Physics Avoidance: and other essays in conceptual strategy

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780198803478
eISBN:
9780191841651
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198803478.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, Philosophy of Language

Contemporary philosophy of science attempts to diagnose explanatory structure through descriptive tools derived largely from logic, an orientation called “Theory T thinking” here. Its portrait of ... More


David Sloan Wilson: Visionary, Idealist, Ideologue

Mark E. Borrello

in Dreamers, Visionaries, and Revolutionaries in the Life Sciences

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780226569871
eISBN:
9780226570075
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226570075.003.0016
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

When Richard Dawkins published The Selfish Gene in 1976 he opined “Be warned that if you wish, as I do, to build a society in which individuals cooperate generously, you can expect little help from ... More


A New Biogeochemical Earth System Model for the Phanerozoic Eon

Noam M. Bergman, Timothy Lenton, and Andrew J. Watson

in Scientists Debate Gaia: The Next Century

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262194983
eISBN:
9780262283182
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262194983.003.0011
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter presents a new biogeochemical model of the Earth system that attempts to synthesize the different approaches of existing models. It combines the approach of Lenton and Watson’s ... More


Equilibrium Models in Economics: Purposes and Critical Limitations

Lawrence A. Boland

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780190274320
eISBN:
9780190274368
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190274320.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

Equilibrium models used in beginning economics classes are based on the equilibrium concept developed by Alfred Marshall, but that concept of an equilibrium does not correspond to the equilibrium ... More


7 The Evolution of Prestige Good Systems: an Application of Network Analysis to the Transformation of Communication Systems and their Media

Koji Mizoguchi

in Network Analysis in Archaeology: New Approaches to Regional Interaction

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199697090
eISBN:
9780191745300
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199697090.003.0007
Subject:
Classical Studies, Archaeology: Classical

This chapter proposes a two-stage evolutionary model of ‘prestige good systems’. The model is based upon the understanding that prestige goods are symbolically generalized communication media that ... More


Introduction

Marek Wecowski

in The Rise of the Greek Aristocratic Banquet

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2014
ISBN:
9780199684014
eISBN:
9780191766169
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199684014.003.0001
Subject:
Classical Studies, European History: BCE to 500CE, Literary Studies: Classical, Early, and Medieval

The ‘Introduction’ discusses the method to be implemented when studying an intricate historical phenomenon whose origins reach back into a period lacking written sources. In earlier scholarship, it ... More


The A-project and the B-project

Mark Richard

in Conceptual Engineering and Conceptual Ethics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
February 2020
ISBN:
9780198801856
eISBN:
9780191840418
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198801856.003.0017
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Ameliorative philosophical analysis elucidates a concept by looking at the purposes it has for its users. It evaluates them, and gives an analysis on the basis of the purposes the analyst thinks ... More


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