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Varieties of Naturalism: What Is a Naturalistic Philosophy of Mind?

Steven Horst

in Beyond Reduction: Philosophy of Mind and Post-Reductionist Philosophy of Science

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195317114
eISBN:
9780199871520
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195317114.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter examines several varieties of “naturalism” in philosophy of mind and philosophy of science. In philosophy of mind, it is the view that mental phenomena can be accommodated within the ... More


The Two Faces of Morality: How Evolutionary Theory Can Both Vindicate and Debunk Morality (with a Special Nod to the Growing Importance of Law)

Robin Bradley Kar

in Evolution and Morality: NOMOS LII

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814771228
eISBN:
9780814737828
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814771228.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This chapter differentiates “vindicating” from “debunking” evolutionary explanations of moral judgment, arguing that there is a specific set of circumstances in which people would be entitled to ... More


Consciousness

Thomas Nagel

in Mind and Cosmos: Why the Materialist Neo-Darwinian Conception of Nature is Almost Certainly False

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199919758
eISBN:
9780199980369
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199919758.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Philosophy of Science

This chapter discusses the concept of consciousness, which is the most evident barrier to a comprehensive naturalism that relies only on resources of physical science. It reveals that the existence ... More


Evolutionary Naturalism and the Fear of Religion

Thomas Nagel

in The Last Word

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195149838
eISBN:
9780199872206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195149831.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Rationalism bears a closer association with religion than empiricism does; the former offers a conception of the world that links the deepest truths of nature to the deepest thoughts of the human ... More


Other Inductive Arguments

Herman Philipse

in God in the Age of Science?: A Critique of Religious Reason

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199697533
eISBN:
9780191738470
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199697533.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Six C-inductive arguments for and against the existence of God are critically discussed in this chapter: the Argument from Consciousness, the Argument from Moral Truth, the Argument from Moral ... More


Invisible-Hand Explanations

Edna Ullmann-Margalit

in Normal Rationality: Decisions and Social Order

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780198802433
eISBN:
9780191840753
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198802433.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Invisible-hand explanations suggest that many social practices are a product of human action, but not human design. In coming to terms with such explanations, it is essential to distinguish between ... More


The Invisible Hand and the Cunning of Reason

Edna Ullmann-Margalit

in Normal Rationality: Decisions and Social Order

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780198802433
eISBN:
9780191840753
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198802433.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

The idea of the invisible hand has had an impact not only on the eighteenth and the nineteenth centuries but on the twentieth and twenty-first centuries as well, and it has had a curious ideological ... More


The Evolution of Divine and Human Minds: Evolutionary Psychology, the Cognitive Study of Religion and Theism

Aku Visala

in Evolution, Religion, and Cognitive Science: Critical and Constructive Essays

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2014
ISBN:
9780199688081
eISBN:
9780191767722
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199688081.003.0004
Subject:
Religion, Religious Studies, Religion and Society

It is commonly assumed that the cognitive and evolutionary explanations of religion make the truth of theism more improbable than not. Here, two interrelated questions will be examined. First, what ... More


The Inclusivist Anomaly and the Limits of Evolutionary Explanation

Allen Buchanan

in The Evolution of Moral Progress: A Biocultural Theory

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
June 2018
ISBN:
9780190868413
eISBN:
9780190868444
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190868413.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter provides a sustained critique of the evoconservative view. It argues that no adequate evolutionary explanation has been given for the inclusivist features of contemporary human ... More


Postscript: Moral Progress and Cultural Evolution

Allen Buchanan

in The Evolution of Moral Progress: A Biocultural Theory

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
June 2018
ISBN:
9780190868413
eISBN:
9780190868444
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190868413.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

The focus in this volume is on the implications of the biological evolutionary origins of morality for the possibilities for moral progress. It makes no attempt to cast an account of the conditions ... More


Biological Preparedness and Evolutionary Explanation

Denise Dellarosa Cummins and Robert Cummins

in The World in the Head

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199548033
eISBN:
9780191809835
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199548033.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter begins by discussing the factors that are prominent in motivating interest in evolutionary approaches to cognition and reviews criticisms against some of the approaches. It is followed ... More


Sceptical Reflections on Human Nature

Kim Sterelny

in Why We Disagree About Human Nature

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
July 2018
ISBN:
9780198823650
eISBN:
9780191862267
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198823650.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

David Hull famously argued that the very idea of human nature was pre-Darwinian; once we genuinely embrace Darwin’s insights into unbounded variation and plasticity over time, no robust account of ... More


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