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11 Refining disordered structures

Reinhard B. Neder and Thomas Proffen

in Diffuse Scattering and Defect Structure Simulations: A cook book using the program DISCUS

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199233694
eISBN:
9780191715563
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199233694.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

This chapter deals with the subject of refining the model of a disordered material based on diffraction data. Three different methods are presented: Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC), refinement of the PDF ... More


Car Parking as a Game Between Simple Heuristics

John M. C. Hutchinson, Carola Fanselow, and Peter M. Todd

in Ecological Rationality: Intelligence in the World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195315448
eISBN:
9780199932429
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315448.003.0133
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

Selecting a parking space is a sequential-search problem, with the pattern of spaces available to search determined by where others have parked. Earlier optimality models of parking ignored this ... More


Algorithmic Evolution

John E. Mayfield

in The Engine of Complexity: Evolution as Computation

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231163040
eISBN:
9780231535281
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231163040.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Computer scientists have devised a variety of techniques that allow computers to learn. Many of these employ variations on the engine of complexity. In the world of living beings, evolution results ... More


Memes, Minds, and Imagination

SUSAN BLACKMORE

in Imaginative Minds

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197264195
eISBN:
9780191734540
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264195.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter determines the existence of human imagination and creativity through the concept of human culture and meme. It aims to rebut the two assumptions governing creative imagination in humans. ... More


Nest Building and Self-Assembling

Eric Bonabeau, Marco Dorigo, and Guy Theraulaz

in Swarm Intelligence: From Natural to Artificial Systems

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195131581
eISBN:
9780197561485
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195131581.003.0010
Subject:
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning

Social insect nest architectures can be complex, intricate structures. Stigmergy (see section 1.2.3), that is, the coordination of activities through the environment, is an important mechanism ... More


Past and Present

John E. Mayfield

in The Engine of Complexity: Evolution as Computation

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231163040
eISBN:
9780231535281
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231163040.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The two most frequently asked questions of students who are first learning about evolution are: How did life start? And, what is its future? The engine-of-complexity concept provides added ... More


From Genetic Evolution to Engineering Optimization

Yaser Khalifa

in Darwin's Roadmap to the Curriculum: Evolutionary Studies in Higher Education

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780190624965
eISBN:
9780190051679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190624965.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology

This chapter focuses on one of the main members of the evolutionary algorithms class called genetic algorithms (GAs). GAs mimic the process of sexual reproduction and survival of the fittest in ... More


Rethinking Software Protection

Peter R Slowinski

in Artificial Intelligence and Intellectual Property

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
April 2021
ISBN:
9780198870944
eISBN:
9780191913532
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198870944.003.0016
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

The core of artificial intelligence (AI) applications is software of one sort or another. But while available data and computing power are important for the recent quantum leap in AI, there would not ... More


Introduction

Wolfgang Banzhaf and Lidia Yamamoto

in Artificial Chemistries

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780262029438
eISBN:
9780262329460
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029438.003.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

The introduction to Artificial Chemistries discusses its root in Artificial Life research before explaining with a simple example from the mathematical area of Arithmetic what we can imagine under an ... More


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