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Wetland Hydrology

C. Rhett Jackson

in Ecology of Freshwater and Estuarine Wetlands

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520247772
eISBN:
9780520932890
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520247772.003.0003
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The commonly used phrase “wetland hydrology” should be considered shorthand for hydrology, as it relates to wetlands. Hillslope hydrology is a subbranch of hydrology devoted to describing and ... More


Drivers and Predictors of Global Biodiversity

Boris Worm and Derek P. Tittensor

in A Theory of Global Biodiversity (MPB-60)

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780691154831
eISBN:
9781400890231
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691154831.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter considers the driving factors that may cause global patterns of biodiversity to exist. The goal is to confront published hypotheses about putative drivers of diversity with comprehensive ... More


Amazonian Biogeography as a Test for Gaia

Axel Kleidon

in Scientists Debate Gaia: The Next Century

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262194983
eISBN:
9780262283182
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262194983.003.0027
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter discusses the climatic conditions during the last ice age and how they were considerably different from today. The chapter starts by providing a quantifiable definition of “beneficial to ... More


Precipitation and Evapotranspiration

William G. Wilson

in Stormwater: A Resource for Scientists, Engineers, and Policy Makers

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780226364957
eISBN:
9780226365145
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226365145.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter covers the water cycle, including precipitation, evapotranspiration, and stormwater flows. It discusses how precipitation can pick up pollutants, from raindrops picking up dust and ... More


Cities and Nature

William G. Wilson

in Constructed Climates: A Primer on Urban Environments

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226901459
eISBN:
9780226901473
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226901473.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Humans have altered the biosphere, greatly expanded their population, and now feel the effects of those alterations. A hunter-gatherer lifestyle gave way to an agrarian one, and an agrarian lifestyle ... More


Forests and Forest Environments

Josef Fanta

in The Physical Geography of Western Europe

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199277759
eISBN:
9780191917639
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199277759.003.0028
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Physical Geography and Topography

North-western Europe has on various counts a very heterogeneous character. Crystalline and metamorphic bedrocks of various ages and Tertiary and Quaternary deposits define its geology and ... More


Climate

Jeffrey C. Rogers, Julie A. Winkler, David R. Legates, and Linda O. Mearns

in Geography in America at the Dawn of the 21st Century

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198233923
eISBN:
9780191917707
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198233923.003.0012
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Regional Geography

Public awareness of climate and its societal impact has substantially increased in the recent decade. An extraordinarily persistent El Niño from 1992–5 followed by another strong event in 1997–8 ... More


Temperature and diversity

Andrew Clarke

in Principles of Thermal Ecology: Temperature, Energy, and Life

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780199551668
eISBN:
9780191847936
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199551668.003.0015
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

The diversity (species richness) of plants and animals is typically highest in the tropics and the strongest environmental correlate of species richness is often climate. The energy for plant ... More


Water Quantity and Hydrology

Matthew McCartney

in Freshwater Ecology and Conservation: Approaches and Techniques

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
February 2019
ISBN:
9780198766384
eISBN:
9780191820908
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198766384.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Freshwater ecosystems are naturally dynamic. The source of water, discharge, turnover, and residence times all affect which organisms can live in different freshwater habitats and are key ... More


Physical Variables in Freshwater Ecosystems

Curt Lamberth and Jocelyne M.R. Hughes

in Freshwater Ecology and Conservation: Approaches and Techniques

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
February 2019
ISBN:
9780198766384
eISBN:
9780191820908
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198766384.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

We consider three categories of physical variables that can be measured for different freshwater ecosystems: (1) variables measured or described at the catchment or sub-catchment scale (e.g., ... More


Raiding the Range

Howard G. Wilshire, Richard W. Hazlett, and Jane E. Nielson

in The American West at Risk: Science, Myths, and Politics of Land Abuse and Recovery

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195142051
eISBN:
9780197561782
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195142051.003.0008
Subject:
Environmental Science, Social Impact of Environmental Issues

“Home on the Range” evokes a western landscape “where the deer and the antelope play.” But even at the song’s debut in the 1870s, deer and antelope were declining in numbers and cattle grazing was ... More


Evapotranspiration by Tamarisk in the Colorado River Basin

Erika Zavaleta

in Tamarix: A Case Study of Ecological Change in the American West

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199898206
eISBN:
9780190267896
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199898206.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter focuses on evapotranspiration (ET) by tamarisk in the Colorado River basin. In particular, it considers whether restoration of tamarisk-invaded rivers and riverbanks could result in ... More


Water Use by Tamarix

James R. Cleverly

in Tamarix: A Case Study of Ecological Change in the American West

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199898206
eISBN:
9780190267896
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199898206.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter focuses on water use by two species of Tamarix, T. chinensis and T. ramosissima, and their hybrids. It first considers the link between hydrology in the riparian corridor and Tamarix ... More


NDVI from A to Z

Nathalie Pettorelli

in The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199693160
eISBN:
9780191810145
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199693160.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

This chapter presents the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). It gives a detailed rationale of the NDVI's formulation and reviews the current set of its available datasets. It also ... More


Serpentine Soils as Media for Plant Growth

Earl B. Alexander, Roger G. Coleman, Todd Keeler-Wolfe, and Susan P. Harrison

in Serpentine Geoecology of Western North America: Geology, Soils, and Vegetation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195165081
eISBN:
9780197562123
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195165081.003.0012
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Soil Science

Plants and animals require water, energy sources, and nutrients to make tissues and perform vital functions. The primary source of energy is the sun. Green plants use solar energy to manufacture ... More


Hydrodynamics

Thomas S. Bianchi

in Biogeochemistry of Estuaries

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195160826
eISBN:
9780197562048
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195160826.003.0009
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

The hydrologic cycle has received considerable attention in recent years with particular interest in the dynamics of land–atmosphere exchanges as it relates to global climate change and the need ... More


One-Dimensional Infiltration and Vertical Flow

Arthur W. Warrick

in Soil Water Dynamics

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195126051
eISBN:
9780197561355
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195126051.003.0010
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Soil Science

This chapter addresses one-dimensional infiltration and vertical flow problems. Traditionally, infiltration has received more attention than other unsaturated flow procedures, both for empirical ... More


Solute and Contaminant Transport

Arthur W. Warrick

in Soil Water Dynamics

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195126051
eISBN:
9780197561355
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195126051.003.0012
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Soil Science

We now look at the transport of materials in soil systems. Not only do water and liquids move, but so also do a variety of chemical and biological constituents. In this chapter, the emphasis will ... More


Environmental Impacts of Urbanism

Jorgelina Hardoy and David Satterthwaite

in The Physical Geography of South America

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195313413
eISBN:
9780197562475
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195313413.003.0029
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Physical Geography and Topography

This chapter describes the environmental impacts of urbanization in South America, and the difficulties that governments have had in managing them. The discussion focuses initially on the rapid ... More


Water in Serpentine Geoecosystems

Earl B. Alexander, Roger G. Coleman, Todd Keeler-Wolfe, and Susan P. Harrison

in Serpentine Geoecology of Western North America: Geology, Soils, and Vegetation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195165081
eISBN:
9780197562123
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195165081.003.0007
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Soil Science

Water is continuously cycled from the atmosphere through geoecosystems to water bodies and, by evaporation and evapotranspiration, back to the atmosphere. Water is commonly transported long ... More


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