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THE EARTH'S RADIATION BUDGET

I. M. Vardavas and F. W. Taylor

in Radiation and Climate

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199227471
eISBN:
9780191711138
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227471.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

The Earth's radiation budget is examined in detail, beginning with the model input data requirements to generate the radiation fluxes. Requirements for satellite and ground-based validation data, ... More


Introduction: The Diversity of Planetary Climates

Andrew P. Ingersoll

in Planetary Climates

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691145044
eISBN:
9781400848232
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691145044.003.0001
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This book examines the fundamental physical processes that control planetary climates, from convection and radiation to escape of atmospheres, evaporation, condensation, atmospheric chemistry, and ... More


Mars: Long-Term Climate Change

Andrew P. Ingersoll

in Planetary Climates

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691145044
eISBN:
9781400848232
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691145044.003.0004
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter examines the processes underlying long-term climate change on Mars, focusing on the so-called “faint young Sun paradox,” in which evidence of ancient rivers contradicts results from ... More


Mars: The Present Era

Andrew P. Ingersoll

in Planetary Climates

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691145044
eISBN:
9781400848232
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691145044.003.0005
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter examines condensation and evaporation on Mars, with particular emphasis on how exchanges of water vapor and carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and polar ice influence the planet's ... More


Tip Treatment

C. Julian Chen

in Introduction to Scanning Tunneling Microscopy: Second Edition

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199211500
eISBN:
9780191705991
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199211500.003.0013
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter discusses various methods for tip treatment. First, a general discussion about the experimental facts of STM and AFM tips is presented, which points to the subtleties and significance of ... More


Crystal growth and evaluation

Alexander Blake

in Crystal Structure Analysis: Principles and Practice

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199219469
eISBN:
9780191722516
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199219469.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

This chapter describes techniques for obtaining and handling single crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction, including solvent evaporation, cooling, liquid and vapour diffusion methods, slow reaction ... More


Evaluation of Methods and Uncertainties in the Water Budget

Thomas C. Winter and Donald O. Rosenberry

in Mirror Lake: Interactions among Air, Land, and Water

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520261198
eISBN:
9780520944497
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520261198.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Water budget studies of Mirror Lake aim to measure hydrologic components interacting with the lake as accurately as possible. However, measurements of water budget components are subject to some ... More


Black hole thermodynamics

Andrew M. Steane

in Relativity Made Relatively Easy Volume 2: General Relativity and Cosmology

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
December 2021
ISBN:
9780192895646
eISBN:
9780191943911
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780192895646.003.0021
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The chapter presents the Penrose process, Hawking radiation, entropy and the laws of black hole thermodynamics. The Penrose process is derived and the area theorem is stated. A heuristic argument for ... More


First Fight

Robert Wyss

in The Man Who Built the Sierra Club: A Life of David Brower

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780231164467
eISBN:
9780231541312
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231164467.003.0002
Subject:
History, Environmental History

Brower as the new executive director joins the fight to prevent two dams from being built in Dinosaur National Monument. He scores an unexpected victory against federal dam builders and is thrust ... More


Cloud–Aerosol Interactions from the Micro to the Cloud Scale

Graham Feingold and Holger Siebert

in Clouds in the Perturbed Climate System: Their Relationship to Energy Balance, Atmospheric Dynamics, and Precipitation

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262012874
eISBN:
9780262255448
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262012874.003.0014
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter describes the microphysical interaction of aerosols and cloud processes from the micro to the cloud scale. Aerosol particles affect cloud dynamics by changing their droplet size ... More


Hydrology of Urban Environments

Marc Illgen

in Urban Ecology: Patterns, Processes, and Applications

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199563562
eISBN:
9780191774713
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199563562.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

The chapter describes the general hydrological processes and phenomena of urban environments. The major components of the urban water cycle, together with the processes occurring between atmosphere, ... More


An Expedient Pottery Technology and Its Implications for Ancient Maya Trade and Interaction

James Aimers, Elizabeth Haussner, Dori Farthing, and Satoru Murata

in Perspectives on the Ancient Maya of Chetumal Bay

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780813062792
eISBN:
9780813051758
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813062792.003.0008
Subject:
Archaeology, Historical Archaeology

This chapter considers one of the crudest types of pottery ever produced by the ancient Maya, Coconut Walk Plain, a ware that has been interpreted to have been used in evaporative salt production ... More


Earth: Imprint of Life

Yuk L. Yung and William B. DeMore

in Photochemistry of Planetary Atmospheres

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195105018
eISBN:
9780197560990
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195105018.003.0012
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Atmospheric Sciences

Earth is the largest of the four terrestrial planets, three of which have substantial atmospheres. The astronomical and orbital parameters are summarized in table 9.1. Our planet has an obliquity ... More


Abiotic Factors

David Ward

in The Biology of Deserts

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
October 2016
ISBN:
9780198732754
eISBN:
9780191796982
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198732754.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Abiotic factors are the primary reason for the differentiation of deserts from other ecosystems. Fundamentally, it is the low rainfall that deserts experience that differentiate them from other ... More


The Thermophysical Properties of Metallic Liquids: Volume 2 — Predictive Models

Takamichi Iida and Roderick I. L. Guthrie

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780198729846
eISBN:
9780191796661
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198729846.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The main purpose of materials science and engineering is to make the best use of all the elements in the periodic table. This leads to the effective use and conservation of natural resources. For ... More


Physiological Adaptations to Extreme Environments

Philip C. Withers, Christine E. Cooper, Shane K. Maloney, Francisco Bozinovic, and Ariovaldo P. Cruz-Neto

in Ecological and Environmental Physiology of Mammals

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780199642717
eISBN:
9780191830334
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199642717.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Ecology

Chapter 4 describes how the plastic and flexible bauplan of mammals is adapted for extreme environments and extreme activities. It first examines how mammals survive in extreme cold environments, ... More


The Hydrological Cycle and Climate

Han Dolman

in Biogeochemical Cycles and Climate

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
June 2019
ISBN:
9780198779308
eISBN:
9780191824388
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198779308.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

Water is a key part of the Earth system and interacts with climate through a variety of mechanisms. The chapter initially describes the effect of atmospheric moisture on the lapse rate and then ... More


Management of Dry Eye in Sjögren’s

Peter Donshik

in The Sjögren's Book

Published in print:
2022
Published Online:
May 2022
ISBN:
9780197502112
eISBN:
9780197650417
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197502112.003.0023
Subject:
Psychology, Health Psychology

Dry eye is a very common finding and is caused by many conditions. In Sjögren’s, the autoimmune disease causes dry eye. The practitioner should rule out infection, non-immune-related sources, or ... More


Energy flow in organisms

Andrew Clarke

in Principles of Thermal Ecology: Temperature, Energy, and Life

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780199551668
eISBN:
9780191847936
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199551668.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

An organism is an open thermodynamic system exchanging both energy and materials with its environment. Organisms exchange energy with their environment by radiation, conduction, convection and ... More


Temperature regulation

Andrew Clarke

in Principles of Thermal Ecology: Temperature, Energy, and Life

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780199551668
eISBN:
9780191847936
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199551668.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

For many organisms there is a fitness advantage to being warm. Many organisms use behavioural thermoregulation to maintain a high body temperature during the day, basking in the sun to warm up and ... More


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