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Distinctively Human Practical Reason

Peter Carruthers

in The Architecture of the Mind

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199207077
eISBN:
9780191708909
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199207077.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter provides a modularist account of the main elements of human practical reasoning. It appeals to a norms module that is structured in such a way as to attach intrinsic motivation to stored ... More


Iterated Deontic Modalities

Ruth Barcan Marcus

in Modalities: Philosophical Essays

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195096576
eISBN:
9780199833412
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195096576.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, General

In this paper, a confusion between evaluative and prescriptive uses of “ought” is located, and the prescriptive use of deontic operators is then recommended.


Norms of Truth and Meaning

Paul Horwich

in Reflections on Meaning

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199251247
eISBN:
9780191603983
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019925124X.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

Truth and meaning each have evaluative import. However, contrary to Dummett, Gibbard, Brandom, and many others, these notions are not constitutively normative — they are not themselves evaluative ... More


Introduction

Ian Clark

in Legitimacy in International Society

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199219193
eISBN:
9780191717734
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199219193.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This introductory chapter begins with a discussion of the objectives of this book, which is to develop an understanding of legitimacy against the background of international relations. It is shown ... More


Arguments for Supra‐evidential Fideism

John Bishop

in Believing by Faith: An Essay in the Epistemology and Ethics of Religious Belief

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780199205547
eISBN:
9780191709432
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199205547.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

This chapter considers three strategies: assimilation to cases of inter-personal trust; appeal to consequentialism (on which Pascal's Wager bears), and a ‘tu quoque’, which maintains that everyone ... More


Multiattribute Utility Measurement: Evaluating Desegregation Plans in a Highly Political Context

Jie W Weiss and David J Weiss

in A Science of Decision Making: The Legacy of Ward Edwards

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195322989
eISBN:
9780199869206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322989.003.0028
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter discusses a multiattribute utility analysis of seven school desegregation plans submitted by external groups to the Los Angeles School Board, which were under court order to desegregate. ... More


Saturated Adjectives, Reified Properties

Idan Landau

in Lexical Semantics, Syntax, and Event Structure

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199544325
eISBN:
9780191720536
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199544325.003.0010
Subject:
Linguistics, Historical Linguistics

Evaluative adjectives (e.g. rude, clever) display a systematic alternation, which brings about a cluster of syntactic and semantic changes. The adjectival variants are related by the joint ... More


Meta-theoretical-evaluative motivations

KEITH CULVER and MICHAEL GIUDICE

in Legality's Borders: An Essay in General Jurisprudence

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195370751
eISBN:
9780199775903
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195370751.003.003
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law

This chapter returns to the method and purpose of analytical jurisprudence. It discusses the way analytical legal theorists have attempted to identify what they claim are necessary features of an ... More


Adverbs and Social Class

Ronald K. S. Macaulay

in Talk that Counts: Age, Gender, and Social Class Differences in Discourse

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195173819
eISBN:
9780199788361
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195173819.003.0010
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

As had been found in the previous study in Ayr, middle-class speakers used derived adverbs in -ly significantly more frequently than working-class speakers. This is true of both adults and ... More


Discourse Styles

Ronald K. S. Macaulay

in Talk that Counts: Age, Gender, and Social Class Differences in Discourse

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195173819
eISBN:
9780199788361
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195173819.003.0014
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

This chapter presents a qualitative analysis of the different kinds of discourse styles employed by the speakers, relating this to the quantitative measures. The significant differences in adverb use ... More


Hume's Morality: Feeling and Fabrication

Rachel Cohon

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199268443
eISBN:
9780191708565
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199268443.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This book interprets the moral philosophy of David Hume, focusing on two areas: his metaethics and the artificial virtues. The book first reinterprets Hume's claim that moral distinctions are not ... More


Understanding Sympathy and Sympathetic Understanding

Sophie Ratcliffe

in On Sympathy

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199239870
eISBN:
9780191716799
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199239870.003.0002
Subject:
Literature, Poetry

This chapter presents an overview of ideas of sympathy and empathy, and their relations with theology, from the late 19th century to the present day. Using The Tempest as a central example, it ... More


Law and Reason

Katja Maria Vogt

in Law, Reason, and the Cosmic City: Political Philosophy in the Early Stoa

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195320091
eISBN:
9780199869657
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195320091.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy

It is argued that the two dominant ways of reconstructing the Stoic conception of law—as a set of rules (rules‐interpretation) or as identified with the perfect decision‐making of the sage ... More


Aristotle on Function and Virtue

Christine M. Korsgaard

in The Constitution of Agency: Essays on Practical Reason and Moral Psychology

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199552733
eISBN:
9780191720321
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199552733.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

According to Plato and Aristotle, a virtue is a quality that makes you good at performing your function. Aristotle thinks that the human function is rational activity. This chapter asks how the moral ... More


Defending the Parallel

Terence Cuneo

in The Normative Web: An Argument for Moral Realism

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199218837
eISBN:
9780191711749
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199218837.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

The argument for the core argument's first premise comes in two stages. This chapter presents the first stage of the argument. Its aim is threefold: first, to identify the character of epistemic ... More


Agency, Emotions, and the Problem of Import

Bennett W. Helm

in Love, Friendship, and the Self: Intimacy, Identification, and the Social Nature of Persons

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199567898
eISBN:
9780191722387
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199567898.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter sketches a basic account of what it is for something to have import to an agent — of what it is for an agent to care about something — in terms of which is distinguished mere ... More


Values: Loving Oneself

Bennett W. Helm

in Love, Friendship, and the Self: Intimacy, Identification, and the Social Nature of Persons

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199567898
eISBN:
9780191722387
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199567898.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter argues that an account of valuing should be modeled on the account of caring provided: valuing (the evaluative attitude) and values (the relevant kind of import) are constituted by a ... More


A Psychological Advantage for the Status Quo

Scott Eidelman and Christian S. Crandall

in Social and Psychological Bases of Ideology and System Justification

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195320916
eISBN:
9780199869541
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195320916.003.004
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter discusses a host of psychological phenomena and their supporting mechanisms that favor status quo maintenance. These phenomena are placed into two loose clusters: those that describe ... More


Epidemiology in practice

John Wright

in Public Health: An action guide to improving health

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199238934
eISBN:
9780191716621
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199238934.003.03
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses the following topics: What is epidemiology? How do we measure disease? using rates in measuring disease; describing disease in terms of time, place, and person; defining cases ... More


Wine Words

Adrienne Lehrer

in Wine and Conversation

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195307931
eISBN:
9780199867493
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195307931.003.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Theoretical Linguistics

The large and growing wine vocabulary is analyzed into its major categories: acidity, sweetness, balance, age, astringency, body, nose, finish, effervescence, and evaluation. The vocabulary of most ... More


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