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Biofuels: The Renewable Fuel Standard

Albert N Link and Jamie R. Link

in Government as Entrepreneur

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195369458
eISBN:
9780199871018
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195369458.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

This chapter describes the Biomass Research and Development Initiative (BRDI) through which government acts as entrepreneur. BRDI's use of public financial resources leverages both public- and ... More


Models of Neurotoxicity Provide Unique Insight into Normal Development

Michael W. Miller

in Brain Development: Normal Processes and the Effects of Alcohol and Nicotine

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195183139
eISBN:
9780199865147
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183139.003.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development

This chapter begins with a brief discussion of the purpose of the book, which is to examine three contrasting situations in brain development: normal development, ethanol affected development, and ... More


Effects of Ethanol on the Regulation of Cell Cycle in Neural Stem Cells

W. Michael Zawada and Mita Das

in Brain Development: Normal Processes and the Effects of Alcohol and Nicotine

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195183139
eISBN:
9780199865147
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183139.003.0012
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development

This chapter discusses the effects of early ethanol exposure on the cell cycle, with particular reference to neuronal stem cells (NSCs) in the developing brain. Understanding how ethanol affects the ... More


Effects of Ethanol on Mechanisms Regulating Neuronal Process Outgrowth

Tara A. Lindsley

in Brain Development: Normal Processes and the Effects of Alcohol and Nicotine

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195183139
eISBN:
9780199865147
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183139.003.0014
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development

This chapter summarizes the effects of ethanol on the outgrowth and maturation of dendrites and axons, focusing on central nervous system neurons developing in vivo or in vitro. Selected observations ... More


Neuronal Survival is Compromised by Ethanol: Extracellular Mediators

Michael W. Miller, Maria B. Bruns, and Paula L. Hoffman

in Brain Development: Normal Processes and the Effects of Alcohol and Nicotine

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195183139
eISBN:
9780199865147
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183139.003.0015
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development

This chapter discusses the effects of ethanol on the incidence of neuronal death and the extracellular mediators that define this death. Ethanol-induced neuronal death occurs during defined periods ... More


Intracellular Events in Ethanol-induced Neuronal Death

Sandra M. Mooney, Michael W. Miller, and George I. Henderson

in Brain Development: Normal Processes and the Effects of Alcohol and Nicotine

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195183139
eISBN:
9780199865147
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183139.003.0016
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development

Developmental exposure to ethanol can significantly reduce the number of neurons in specific areas of the brain, resulting in a decrease in the additive processes of cell generation and migration ... More


Neural Crest and Developmental Exposure to Ethanol

Susan M. Smith and Katherine A. Debelak-Kragtorp

in Brain Development: Normal Processes and the Effects of Alcohol and Nicotine

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195183139
eISBN:
9780199865147
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183139.003.0017
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development

The realization that the developing neural crest is a target of ethanol dates back to the original descriptions of fetal alcohol syndrome. A key discovery was a characteristics facial dysmorphology ... More


Human genetic variation of medical significance

Kenneth K. Kidd and Judith R. Kidd

in Evolution in Health and Disease

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780199207466
eISBN:
9780191728167
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199207466.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter reviews evidence on medically significant genetic variation in humans. Extensive amounts of normal genetic variation occur in humans, and every independently conceived individual is ... More


Political Values and the Future of U.S. Agriculture

Paul B. Thompson

in The Agrarian Vision: Sustainability and Environmental Ethics

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813125879
eISBN:
9780813135557
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Kentucky
DOI:
10.5810/kentucky/9780813125879.003.0004
Subject:
History, Social History

The U.S. Department of Agriculture's creation of a certified-organic level has made mainstream agriculture keenly aware that times are changing. They utilized lawsuits and ballot initiatives to ... More


Multitasking in the Automobile

David L. Strayer and Frank A. Drews

in Attention: From Theory to Practice

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195305722
eISBN:
9780199847723
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195305722.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

While often being reminded to pay full attention while driving an automobile, people regularly engage in a wide variety of multitasking activities when they are behind the wheel. Unfortunately, these ... More


Brazil: Disentangling Green Industry from Brown Consequences

Benjamin S. Allen

in Can Green Sustain Growth?: From the Religion to the Reality of Sustainable Prosperity

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780804785259
eISBN:
9780804788571
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804785259.003.0012
Subject:
Business and Management, Innovation

Brazil’s energy matrix is among the most renewable in the world: 46% stems from hydroelectric dams, sugar cane-based ethanol, and wood and vegetable carbon. However, by some estimates Brazil is also ... More


Food, Energy, and Climate Connections in a Global Economy

David B. Lobell, Rosamond L. Naylor, and Christopher B. Field

in The Evolving Sphere of Food Security

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2014
ISBN:
9780199354054
eISBN:
9780199398959
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199354054.003.0009
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

Energy policies and innovations can have profound impacts on food systems, and vice versa, as countries strive to meet growing demands for both food and energy. Energy also plays a critical role in ... More


Biofuels, Binding Constraints, and Agricultural Commodity Price Volatility

Philip Abbott

in The Economics of Food Price Volatility

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226128924
eISBN:
9780226129082
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226129082.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

The share of U.S. corn production used to produce ethanol increased from 12.4% in the 2004/05 crop year to over 38.5% in the 2010/11 crop year, and remained there even in 2011/12. Even after ... More


Drip Irrigation and New Disease Resistant Varieties Save HC&S—1970 to 2014

C. Allan Jones and Robert V. Osgood

in From King Cane to the Last Sugar Mill: Agricultural Technology and the Making of Hawaii's Premier Crop

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780824840006
eISBN:
9780824868635
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780824840006.003.0005
Subject:
Society and Culture, Pacific Studies

The Hawai‘i sugar industry remained profitable into early-1970s. However, unstable government programs and sugar prices caused thirteen companies to close between 1970 and 1980. HC&S and other ... More


Meeting the Mandate for Biofuels: Implications for Land Use, Food, and Fuel Prices

Xiaoguang Chen, Haixiao Huang, Madhu Khanna, and Hayri Önal

in The Intended and Unintended Effects of U.S. Agricultural and Biotechnology Policies

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226988030
eISBN:
9780226988061
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226988061.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter examines the effects of the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) and accompanying volumetric subsidies for land use, food, and fuel production and prices in the United States. Biofuel mandates ... More


Alcohol and Humans: A Long and Social Affair

Kimberley Hockings and Robin Dunbar (eds)

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9780198842460
eISBN:
9780191878442
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198842460.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Ethanol (or, as it is more popularly known, alcohol) use has a long and ubiquitous history. The prevailing tendency to view alcohol merely as a ‘social problem’ or the popular notion that alcohol ... More


The Growth of U.S. Farm Programs

Randal R. Rucker and E. C. Pasour

in Government & The American Economy: A New History

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226251271
eISBN:
9780226251295
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226251295.003.0015
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

The development of federal farm programs in the twentieth century coincides with the overall expansion of the role of the federal government in the United States. Three main types of government ... More


Reactive species can be poisonous: Their role in toxicology

Barry Halliwell and John M.C. Gutteridge

in Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2015
ISBN:
9780198717478
eISBN:
9780191802133
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198717478.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter describes the roles played by free radicals and other reactive species (RS) in toxicology, and whether antioxidants can protect. It begins with an overview of the metabolism of ... More


The Puzzle of Alcohol Consumption

Robin I.M. Dunbar and Kimberley J. Hockings

in Alcohol and Humans: A Long and Social Affair

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9780198842460
eISBN:
9780191878442
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198842460.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Humans have an association with alcohol that has a long archaeological record and a very deep palaeohistory thanks to genetic adaptations for processing ethanol that we share with the African great ... More


The Natural Biology of Dietary Ethanol, and its Implications for Primate Evolution

Robert Dudley

in Alcohol and Humans: A Long and Social Affair

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9780198842460
eISBN:
9780191878442
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198842460.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Ethanol derives from the fermentation of simple sugars, and fermentative yeasts are common within terrestrial ecosystems. Animals that routinely consume sugar-rich fruits and nectars thus chronically ... More


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