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Escalation in Decision-Making: The Tragedy of Taurus

Helga Drummond

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198289531
eISBN:
9780191684722
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198289531.001.0001
Subject:
Business and Management, Organization Studies, HRM / IR

Getting organizations going is one thing, stopping them is another. This book examines how and why organizations become trapped in disastrous decisions. The focal point is Project Taurus, an IT ... More


Internal Armed Conflict: February 1998–March 1999

The Independent International Commission on Kosovo

in The Kosovo Report: Conflict, International Response, Lessons Learned

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199243099
eISBN:
9780191599538
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199243093.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Describes the fatal spiral of hardening Serb intransigence and growing Kosovar Albanian armament that followed the abolishment of Kosovo's autonomy in 1990 and led to escalation of the conflict. The ... More


THE MANAGEMENT OF UNCERTAINTY: ORGANIZATIONS AS DECISION-MAKING SYSTEMS

Chun Wei Choo

in The Knowing Organization: How Organizations Use Information to Construct Meaning, Create Knowledge, and Make Decisions

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195176780
eISBN:
9780199789634
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195176780.003.0005
Subject:
Business and Management, Knowledge Management

Depending on the degree of goal uncertainty and procedural uncertainty, organizational decision making may follow the bounded rationality model, process model, political model, or anarchic model. ... More


Introduction

Austin Carson

in Secret Wars

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691181769
eISBN:
9780691184241
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691181769.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter argues that escalation control and a shared desire to limit war can motivate covert intervention up front, collusion by major powers that detect it, and official non-acknowledgment if it ... More


A Limited-War Theory of Secrecy

Austin Carson

in Secret Wars

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691181769
eISBN:
9780691184241
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691181769.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter defines and takes stock of the challenge of war escalation and the practice of limited war. It develops a logic for secrecy based on shared fears of large-scale conflict escalation. The ... More


The Tools of Thinking

Michael Quinlan

in Thinking About Nuclear Weapons: Principles, Problems, Prospects

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199563944
eISBN:
9780191721274
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199563944.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter notes that, beyond 1945, we have no direct evidence at all about the operational use of nuclear weapons and how conflict involving them might develop. This means that we have to rely on ... More


Risks

Michael Quinlan

in Thinking About Nuclear Weapons: Principles, Problems, Prospects

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199563944
eISBN:
9780191721274
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199563944.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter reviews a range of risks commonly believed, rightly or wrongly, to arise from the existence of nuclear weapons. It examines first the concept of stability, in two forms—deterrent ... More


Washington State Deliberates: From Fortress Prison to De‐Escalation

Vanessa Barker

in The Politics of Imprisonment: How the Democratic Process Shapes the Way America Punishes Offenders

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195370027
eISBN:
9780199871315
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195370027.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This chapter details the case study of Washington State. It shows how a democratic process based on deliberative democracy led to relatively mild penal regime, with low rates of imprisonment and high ... More


The Emergence of Covert Warfare

Austin Carson

in Secret Wars

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691181769
eISBN:
9780691184241
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691181769.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter describes the confluence of political, technological, and social changes that prompted the emergence of covert military intervention as an escalation-control technique. It lays the ... More


Extensions

Joshua M. Epstein

in Agent_Zero: Toward Neurocognitive Foundations for Generative Social Science

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691158884
eISBN:
9781400848256
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691158884.003.0004
Subject:
Mathematics, Applied Mathematics

This part discusses the fourteen extensions of Agent_Zero: endogenous destructive radii; age and impulse control; fight vs. flight; replication of the Latané–Darley experiment; introduction of ... More


Future Research and Conclusions

Joshua M. Epstein

in Agent_Zero: Toward Neurocognitive Foundations for Generative Social Science

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691158884
eISBN:
9781400848256
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691158884.003.0005
Subject:
Mathematics, Applied Mathematics

This part offers some ideas for future research and applications of Agent_Zero. It first considers Agent_Zero's numerical cartography before discussing its affective, cognitive, and social ... More


The Dollar Auction

ROBERT V. DODGE

in Schelling's Game Theory: How to Make Decisions

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199857203
eISBN:
9780199932597
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199857203.003.0010
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Behavioural Economics

The Dollar Auction is a game that models escalation. It is related to “sunk cost” that cannot be retrieved, which is the usual trap for escalation. This simple game makes that point memorable. This ... More


France

Vipin Narang

in Nuclear Strategy in the Modern Era: Regional Powers and International Conflict

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691159829
eISBN:
9781400850402
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691159829.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter traces the contours of France's nuclear postures over time. During the Cold War and after, France adopted an asymmetric escalation posture—though for very different reasons in the two ... More


Deterring Unequally II: Regional Power Nuclear Postures and Crisis Behavior

Vipin Narang

in Nuclear Strategy in the Modern Era: Regional Powers and International Conflict

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691159829
eISBN:
9781400850402
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691159829.003.0010
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter probes questions regarding how nuclear weapons or nuclear postures affect crisis dynamics, by examining whether there is variation in states' decisions to escalate or de-escalate a ... More


De‐Escalation Plans and General Steps Toward a New Relationship

Marc Gopin

in Holy War, Holy Peace: How Religion Can Bring Peace to the Middle East

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195146509
eISBN:
9780199834235
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195146506.003.0009
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

It is suggested that obsession with the mind and personality of key leaders in a conflict situation is a deflection from the real work of conflict prevention and resolution, since the overwhelming, ... More


The Human Animal

Erika Lorraine Milam

in Creatures of Cain

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691181882
eISBN:
9780691185095
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691181882.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter turns to the work of Konrad Lorenz. Primarily interested in the scientific study of animal behavior, Lorenz believed that understanding how and why animals behave the way they do would ... More


Conclusion

Thomas J. Christensen

in Worse Than a Monolith: Alliance Politics and Problems of Coercive Diplomacy in Asia

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691142609
eISBN:
9781400838813
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691142609.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter reviews the historical and theoretical lessons highlighted by the book. It shows how disorganization and discord in alliance politics has made the maintenance of peace through coercive ... More


The Spanish Civil War (1936–1939)

Austin Carson

in Secret Wars

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691181769
eISBN:
9780691184241
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691181769.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter analyzes foreign combat participation in the Spanish Civil War. Fought from 1936 to 1939, the war hosted covert interventions by Germany, Italy, and the Soviet Union. The chapter ... More


The War in Afghanistan (1979–1986)

Austin Carson

in Secret Wars

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691181769
eISBN:
9780691184241
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691181769.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter analyzes the end of the Cold War and external involvement in Afghanistan. On the Soviet side, the December 1979 invasion was preceded by six months of covert involvement in ... More


Is Decision-making a Rational Process?

Paul Edwards and Judy Wajcman

in The Politics of Working Life

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199271900
eISBN:
9780191699559
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199271900.003.0008
Subject:
Business and Management, HRM / IR, Organization Studies

This chapter explores the processes of social group behaviour, which are often analysed through a social psychological perspective that tends to see organizations as having shared purposes or as ... More


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