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Chemical equilibrium and chemical kinetics

Dennis Sherwood and Paul Dalby

in Modern Thermodynamics for Chemists and Biochemists

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
August 2018
ISBN:
9780198782957
eISBN:
9780191826177
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198782957.003.0014
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Building on the previous chapter, this chapter examines gas phase chemical equilibrium, and the equilibrium constant. This chapter takes a rigorous, yet very clear, ‘first principles’ approach, ... More


Rates and Equilibria in Organic Reactions : The Thermodynamic and Extrathermodynamic Approaches

L. K. Doraiswamy

in Organic Synthesis Engineering

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195096897
eISBN:
9780197560822
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195096897.003.0007
Subject:
Chemistry, Organic Chemistry

In any reversible reaction such as . . . vA A + vB B ↔ vR R + vS S [2.1] . . . the system inevitably moves toward a state of equilibrium, or maximum probability. This equilibrium state is very ... More


Reactions in solution

Dennis Sherwood and Paul Dalby

in Modern Thermodynamics for Chemists and Biochemists

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
August 2018
ISBN:
9780198782957
eISBN:
9780191826177
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198782957.003.0016
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Another key chapter, examining reactions in solution. Starting with the definition of an ideal solution, and then introducing Raoult’s law and Henry’s law, this chapter then draws on the results of ... More


Thermodynamics of chemical reactions

Boris S. Bokstein, Mikhail I. Mendelev, and David J. Srolovitz

in Thermodynamics and Kinetics in Materials Science: A Short Course

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198528036
eISBN:
9780191916632
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198528036.003.0007
Subject:
Chemistry, Thermochemistry and Chemical Thermodynamics

This chapter is devoted to chemical equilibrium. We will use thermodynamics to answer two main questions: (1) ‘‘In which direction will a chemical reaction proceed?’’ ... More


E–pH Diagrams

George K. Schweitzer and Lester L. Pesterfield

in The Aqueous Chemistry of the Elements

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195393354
eISBN:
9780197562772
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195393354.003.0003
Subject:
Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry

This volume is intended to employ E–pH diagrams to describe the inorganic solution chemistry of the chemical elements. Such diagrams are very useful in numerous fields of investigation, including ... More


The Arrhenius Equation: Reactions

Brian Cantor

in The Equations of Materials

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780198851875
eISBN:
9780191886683
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198851875.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The Arrhenius equation describes the way in which the speed of a chemical reaction varies exponentially with temperature. This chapter describes the thermodynamics of chemical reactions, the ... More


Ferrous Ions and Manganous Ions

X. M. Bao

in Chemistry of Variable Charge Soils

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195097450
eISBN:
9780197560846
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195097450.003.0017
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Soil Science

It has been seen in the previous chapter that, when organic reducing substances are in contact with soils, iron and manganese oxides of the soil can be reduced, producing ferrous and manganous ... More


Diffusion and Drug Dispersion

W. Mark Saltzman

in Drug Delivery: Engineering Principles for Drug Therapy

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195085891
eISBN:
9780197560501
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195085891.003.0008
Subject:
Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry

Most biological processes occur in an environment that is predominantly water: a typical cell contains 70-85% water and the extracellular space of most tissues is 99%. Even the brain, with its ... More


Drug Permeation through Biological Barriers

W. Mark Saltzman

in Drug Delivery: Engineering Principles for Drug Therapy

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195085891
eISBN:
9780197560501
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195085891.003.0010
Subject:
Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry

In multicellular organisms, thin lipid membranes serve as semipermeable barriers between aqueous compartments. The plasma membrane of the cell separates the cytoplasm from the extracellular space; ... More


Diffusion in Biological Systems

W. Mark Saltzman

in Drug Delivery: Engineering Principles for Drug Therapy

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195085891
eISBN:
9780197560501
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195085891.003.0009
Subject:
Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry

Drug diffusion is an essential mechanism for drug dispersion throughout biological systems. Diffusion is fundamental to the migration of agents in the body and, as we will see in Chapter 9, ... More


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