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RELATIVISTIC HYDRODYNAMICS

Miguel Alcubierre

in Introduction to 3+1 Numerical Relativity

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199205677
eISBN:
9780191709371
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199205677.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter presents the derivation of dynamical equations governing the motion of a perfect fluid, known as the Euler equations, both in the special and general relativistic cases. It considers ... More


Nuclear matter as a Fermi liquid

Helmut Hofmann

in The Physics of Warm Nuclei: with Analogies to Mesoscopic Systems

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780198504016
eISBN:
9780191708480
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198504016.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Nuclear and Plasma Physics

This chapter discusses the significance of two body interactions to many-body properties, beginning with a schematic model showing the relevance of short-range correlations beyond those of the Fermi ... More


Advanced Statistical Mechanics

Barry M McCoy

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199556632
eISBN:
9780191723278
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199556632.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This book begins where elementary books and courses leave off and covers the advances made in statistical mechanics in the past fifty years. The book is divided into three parts. The first part is on ... More


Hot dense matter

Stefano Atzeni and JÜrgen Meyer-Ter-Vehn

in The Physics of Inertial Fusion: BeamPlasma Interaction, Hydrodynamics, Hot Dense Matter

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198562641
eISBN:
9780191714030
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198562641.003.0010
Subject:
Physics, Nuclear and Plasma Physics

The structure and radiative properties of hot dense matter are described. The average ion and the Thomas-Fermi model are developed as approximate complimentary descriptions of electron structure and ... More


A Kinetic-Theory Description of Fluids

Luciano Rezzolla and Olindo Zanotti

in Relativistic Hydrodynamics

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780198528906
eISBN:
9780191746505
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528906.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter illustrates how the foundations of the fluid description are rooted in statistical mechanics and in kinetic theory. This approach, which is appropriate for those systems composed of a ... More


FACTORS GOVERNING PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM

C. N. Hinshelwood

in The Structure of Physical Chemistry

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198570257
eISBN:
9780191717659
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570257.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter discusses factors affecting phase equilibria. Topics covered include liquid-vapour relations, Van der Waals' equation and other equations of state, phase changes, chemical changes, and ... More


The liquid state

ANGELO GAVEZZOTTI

in Molecular Aggregation: Structure analysis and molecular simulation of crystals and liquids

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198570806
eISBN:
9780191718779
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570806.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

In the gaseous state, molecules are to a good approximation isolated entities traveling in space at high speed with sparse and near elastic collisions. At the other extreme, a perfect crystal has a ... More


Real gases

Stephen J. Blundell and Katherine M. Blundell

in Concepts in Thermal Physics

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199562091
eISBN:
9780191718236
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199562091.003.0026
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter introduces several equations of state, which take into account the interactions between molecules in a gas. These include the van der Waals model, the Dieterici model, and the virial ... More


Adsorption of surfactants at liquid/vapour and liquid/liquid interfaces

Bob Aveyard

in Surfactants: In Solution, at Interfaces and in Colloidal Dispersions

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780198828600
eISBN:
9780191867125
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198828600.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Soft Matter / Biological Physics

The variation of interfacial tension of a solution with surfactant concentration in bulk can be used, in conjunction with the Gibbs adsorption equation, to probe the behaviour of adsorbed surfactant ... More


Cooperative local dynamics – the glass-transition zone

C. M. Roland

in Viscoelastic Behavior of Rubbery Materials

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199571574
eISBN:
9780191728976
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199571574.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

When the density of segments becomes sufficiently high, the motions of polymer chains are governed primarily by intermolecular cooperativity. With continued cooling or pressurization, the timescale ... More


Lattice QCD at non-zero temperature and baryon density

Owe Philipsen

in Modern Perspectives in Lattice QCD: Quantum Field Theory and High Performance Computing: Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 93, August 2009

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199691609
eISBN:
9780191731792
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199691609.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter gives an introduction to lattice QCD at finite temperature and baryon density. After a discussion of some fundamental aspects and difficulties of quantum field theory at finite ... More


Zeroth law, equation of state

Andrew M. Steane

in Thermodynamics: A complete undergraduate course

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780198788560
eISBN:
9780191830426
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198788560.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The definition of empirical temperature is carefully explained, through the use of the zeroth law of thermodynamics. The equation of state (relating temperature to other state variables) is ... More


Temperature and heat

Dennis Sherwood and Paul Dalby

in Modern Thermodynamics for Chemists and Biochemists

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
August 2018
ISBN:
9780198782957
eISBN:
9780191826177
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198782957.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Concepts of temperature, temperature scales and temperature measurement. The ideal gas law, Dalton’s law of partial pressure. Assumptions underlying the ideal gas, and distinction between ideal and ... More


Gibbs’ third paper

Robert T. Hanlon

in Block by Block: The Historical and Theoretical Foundations of Thermodynamics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
April 2020
ISBN:
9780198851547
eISBN:
9780191886133
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198851547.003.0036
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

In his third and most famous paper, Gibbs created chemical potential to enable analysis of equilibrium in multi-species / multi-phase systems, introduced his eponymous phase rule, and developed the ... More


Clausius and the road to entropy

Robert T. Hanlon

in Block by Block: The Historical and Theoretical Foundations of Thermodynamics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
April 2020
ISBN:
9780198851547
eISBN:
9780191886133
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198851547.003.0034
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

After a brief recap of how we got to this chapter on Rudolf Clausius, including a discussion on why two laws are needed to govern the maximum performance of Carnot’s engine, the critical question is ... More


Towards the extreme

Nils Andersson

in Gravitational-Wave Astronomy: Exploring the Dark Side of the Universe

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9780198568032
eISBN:
9780191878077
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198568032.003.0012
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The main aspects of neutron star physics are discussed, including the problem of determing the equation of state from first principles (using a simple matter model as example). Available ... More


Dynamics with thermal pressures—I. Unmagnetized plasma

Abraham Bers

in Plasma Physics and Fusion Plasma Electrodynamics

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780199295784
eISBN:
9780191749063
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199295784.003.0014
Subject:
Physics, Nuclear and Plasma Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter describes collective plasma modes in the simplest two-fluid reduced hydrodynamic model which accounts for thermal effects by an isotropic thermal pressure for each charged-particle ... More


Primitive Equations Model

Vladimir Zeitlin

in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics: Understanding (almost) everything with rotating shallow water models

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
April 2018
ISBN:
9780198804338
eISBN:
9780191842627
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198804338.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

The chapter gives the foundations of modelling of large-scale atmospheric and oceanic motions and presents the ‘primitive equations’ (PE) model. After a concise reminder on general fluid mechanics, ... More


Mathematical round up

Dennis Sherwood and Paul Dalby

in Modern Thermodynamics for Chemists and Biochemists

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
August 2018
ISBN:
9780198782957
eISBN:
9780191826177
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198782957.003.0021
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter draws together all the main mathematical equations into a single, structured, sequence, so providing a source of reference, as well as enabling the student to appreciate how ... More


Fermi gas

E. R. DOBBS

in Helium Three

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198506409
eISBN:
9780191709463
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198506409.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The properties of liquid 3He change as temperature is lowered from those typical of a classical, monoatomic liquid above 1 K to those of a Fermi gas with interactions, or Fermi liquid, and finally ... More


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