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Sex Equality

Alec Stone Sweet

in The Judicial Construction of Europe

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199275533
eISBN:
9780191602009
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019927553X.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, European Union

The evolution is charted, through adjudication, of the rules governing sex equality in European Community (EC) law. The first section, ‘The Normative Structure’, provides an overview of the Treaty of ... More


Employment Equality Strategies in Liberal Welfare States

Julia S. O'Connor

in Gender and Welfare State Regimes

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294160
eISBN:
9780191600142
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198294166.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Examines strategies related to pay and employment equity in four countries representing the liberal welfare state regime: Australia, Canada, the UK, and the USA. After outlining the strategies ... More


Judicial Rulemaking and the Institutionalization of European Union Sex Equality Policy

Rachel A. Cichowski

in The Institutionalization of Europe

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
April 2004
ISBN:
9780199247967
eISBN:
9780191601088
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019924796X.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, European Union

An examination is made of the impact of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) on the institutional evolution of European Union sex equality policy, following the provision in the Treaty of Rome (Art. ... More


Regulating Europe: The Commission, the Court, and the Regulation of the European Market

Mark A. Pollack

in The Engines of European Integration: Delegation, Agency, and Agenda Setting in the EU

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199251179
eISBN:
9780191600111
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199251177.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, European Union

The ability of supranational agents such as the European Commission and Court of Justice to influence policy outcomes in the European Union varies as a function of the control mechanisms established ... More


The slow road to victory: the equal pay campaigns from 1939 to 1954

Helen Glew

in Gender, Rhetoric and Regulation: Women's work in the Civil Service and the London County Council, 1900-55

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780719090271
eISBN:
9781526104458
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719090271.003.0006
Subject:
History, Social History

This chapter delineates the process by which equal pay was achieved in the Civil Service and throughout the LCC, demonstrating the shifts and momentum changes after the Second World War. It therefore ... More


‘As a matter of justice’1: the equal pay campaigns from 1924 to 1939

Helen Glew

in Gender, Rhetoric and Regulation: Women's work in the Civil Service and the London County Council, 1900-55

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780719090271
eISBN:
9781526104458
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719090271.003.0005
Subject:
History, Social History

Throughout the interwar years, equal pay for women public servants was continually marked as an issue for the government, rather than one for the Civil Service (and thereby other sections of the ... More


The State of Pay

Sandra Fredman

in Women and the Law

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198763239
eISBN:
9780191695216
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198763239.003.0006
Subject:
Law, Employment Law

This chapter examines the state of pay for working women in Great Britain. It argues that the absence of real progress in this field is no coincidence and that it results from the inability of the ... More


Equal pay

Evelyn Ellis and Philippa Watson

in EU Anti-Discrimination Law

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199698462
eISBN:
9780191745904
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199698462.003.0005
Subject:
Law, EU Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This examines the scope of the obligation to provide equal pay in EU law, the meaning of ‘pay’ including its application in the field of pensions and occupational social security schemes, the meaning ... More


‘Endless arguments about sex and salaries’1: the First World War, reconstruction and the campaigns for equal pay, 1914–24

Helen Glew

in Gender, Rhetoric and Regulation: Women's work in the Civil Service and the London County Council, 1900-55

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780719090271
eISBN:
9781526104458
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719090271.003.0004
Subject:
History, Social History

This chapter examines the early campaigns for equal pay by women civil servants in particular but also the different yet interesting ways in which the question of equal pay manifested itself in the ... More


Equal Pay—The European Dimension

Aileen McColgan

in Just Wages for Women

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198265887
eISBN:
9780191682995
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198265887.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Company and Commercial Law

When the UK joined the European Economic Community in 1973 it accorded Community law supremacy within the national legal system, a fact which has impacted profoundly on the matter of equal pay (at ... More


Public Solutions: Why Equal Pay and Family-Friendly Policies Aren’t Enough and What Should Be Done Instead

Mariko Lin Chang

in Shortchanged: Why Women Have Less Wealth and What Can Be Done About It

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780195367690
eISBN:
9780199944101
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195367690.003.0007
Subject:
Sociology, Gender and Sexuality

This chapter explains why equal pay and family-friendly policies cannot close the gender wealth gap. Instead, it argues the need for new policies that address the two primary causes of the gender ... More


The Equal Pay Act 1970

Aileen McColgan

in Just Wages for Women

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198265887
eISBN:
9780191682995
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198265887.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Company and Commercial Law

This chapter begins with a history of the Equal Pay Act 1970, which came into force on 29 December 1975. It then discusses the shortcomings of the Act, attributing its limited effect on the ... More


Discrimination and Pay

Aileen McColgan

in Just Wages for Women

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198265887
eISBN:
9780191682995
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198265887.003.0006
Subject:
Law, Company and Commercial Law

This chapter begins with a discussion of the existence of gender-pay gaps both within and between occupations, and within and between industries and workplaces. It then considers why this gap exists ... More


The Double Meaning of Equal Pay

Alice Kessler-Harris

in A Woman's Wage: Historical Meanings and Social Consequences

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780813145136
eISBN:
9780813145631
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Kentucky
DOI:
10.5810/kentucky/9780813145136.003.0005
Subject:
History, Cultural History

The Equal Pay Bill of 1963, once passed, prohibited employers from paying women lower wages than men, but with several exceptions. The bill was supported by the slogan developed decades earlier, ... More


Conversion Arguments: Employment Law

N. Scott Arnold

in Imposing Values: Liberalism and Regulation

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195374964
eISBN:
9780199871490
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195374964.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

Chapter 1 identifies a common type of argument deployed by modern liberals in support of various government regulations—a type of argument that makes no appeal to abstract principles about the proper ... More


Conclusion

Aileen McColgan

in Just Wages for Women

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198265887
eISBN:
9780191682995
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198265887.003.0010
Subject:
Law, Company and Commercial Law

This chapter discusses ways to address the gender-pay gap. It outlines a three-pronged approach to respond to the gender-pay gap in particular and, more generally, to the problem of serious and ... More


New Bedford's Civil War

Earl Mulderink, III

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780823243341
eISBN:
9780823243389
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823243341.001.0001
Subject:
History, Military History

This book examines the social, political, economic, and military history of New Bedford, Massachusetts, in the nineteenth century, with a focus on the Civil War homefront from 1861 to 1865 and on the ... More


Introduction

Aileen McColgan

in Just Wages for Women

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198265887
eISBN:
9780191682995
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198265887.003.0001
Subject:
Law, Company and Commercial Law

This introductory chapter first sets out the purpose of the book, which is to trace the attempts made by UK governments, frequently under pressure from the EC, to improve women's positions at work. ... More


Ontario: The Pay Equity Act

Aileen McColgan

in Just Wages for Women

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198265887
eISBN:
9780191682995
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198265887.003.0007
Subject:
Law, Company and Commercial Law

The Government of Ontario passed the Pay Equity Act in 1987. The term ‘pay equity’ meant simply that excluding non gender-related factors which influence pay, work performed by women which is ... More


Active citizenship for women: war and protest

Caitríona Beaumont

in Housewives and citizens: Domesticity and the women's movement in England, 1928-64

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780719086076
eISBN:
9781781705971
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719086076.003.0006
Subject:
History, Social History

This chapter evaluates the contribution of the Mothers’ Union, Catholic Women's League, National Council of Women, Women's Institutes and Townswomen's Guilds to the war effort. The Second World War ... More


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