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Knowing Moral Agents:: Epistemic Dependence and the Moral Realm

Heidi E. Grasswick

in Out from the Shadows: Analytical Feminist Contributions to Traditional Philosophy

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199855469
eISBN:
9780199932788
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199855469.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Feminist Philosophy

In this essay, I examine feminist analyses of moral knowledge and consider their implications for the possibility of knowing through testimony in the moral realm. I frame my questions in terms of ... More


Concluding Reflections

Bryan Frances

in Scepticism Comes Alive

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2005
ISBN:
9780199282135
eISBN:
9780191602917
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199282137.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The importance of what was argued in the book was evaluated, with comments on which elements are of lasting significance for epistemology as a discipline. Notions treated include epistemic deference, ... More


SELF‐CONSCIOUSNESS AND EPISTEMIC RESPONSIBILITY

David O. Brink

in Perfectionism and the Common Good: Themes in the Philosophy of T. H. Green

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
April 2004
ISBN:
9780199266401
eISBN:
9780191600906
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199266409.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter focuses on Green's arguments linking knowledge and self-consciousness via epistemic responsibility. Green argues that knowledge requires self-consciousness, inasmuch as epistemic ... More


Imposed Silences and Shared Hermeneutical Responsibilities

José Medina

in The Epistemology of Resistance: Gender and Racial Oppression, Epistemic Injustice, and the Social Imagination

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199929023
eISBN:
9780199301522
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199929023.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Feminist Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter develops a contextualist approach to hermeneutical injustice that is pluralistic, interactive, and dynamic. First, I offer an expansion of Miranda Fricker’s analysis of silencing, ... More


Testimony, Trust, and Authority

Benjamin McMyler

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199794331
eISBN:
9780199914616
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199794331.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Much of what we know is acquired by taking things on the word of other people whom we trust and treat as authorities concerning what to believe. But what exactly is it to take someone's word for ... More


The Moral Justification for Journalism

Sandra L. Borden

in Journalism Ethics: A Philosophical Approach

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195370805
eISBN:
9780199776610
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195370805.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

The chapter proceeds in four parts. The first section addresses the liberal assumptions of the First Amendment and how these contribute to moral minimalism in journalism. The second section discusses ... More


Knowing at Second Hand

Benjamin McMyler

in Testimony, Trust, and Authority

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199794331
eISBN:
9780199914616
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199794331.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Both reductionists and anti-reductionists about testimony commonly describe knowledge acquired from testimony as knowledge acquired at second hand. This chapter argues that appreciating the ... More


Knowing People

Vrinda Dalmiya

in Knowledge, Truth, and Duty: Essays on Epistemic Justification, Responsibility, and Virtue

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195128925
eISBN:
9780199833764
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195128923.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Makes a case for redirecting epistemology by basing it on a virtue approach and the method of care. According to virtue epistemology, what confers epistemic value are properties of the epistemic ... More


Intellectual Motivation and the Good of Truth

Linda Zagzebski

in Intellectual Virtue: Perspectives from Ethics and Epistemology

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199252732
eISBN:
9780191719288
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199252732.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter explores the problem of what makes knowledge more valuable than mere true belief. Otherwise known as the value problem, it distinguishes four ways a belief can possess value by ... More


Evidentialism

Richard Feldman and Earl Conee

in Evidentialism: Essays in Epistemology

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
August 2004
ISBN:
9780199253722
eISBN:
9780191601361
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199253722.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

An outline of the evidentialist view of justification, a defense of the view against recent objections, and a presentation of advantages of the view over various rival approaches, including ones that ... More


External World Skepticism and the Structure of Epistemic Entitlement

Michael Williams

in The Possibility of Philosophical Understanding: Reflections on the Thought of Barry Stroud

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780195381658
eISBN:
9780199918317
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195381658.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, General, History of Philosophy

The most important skeptical arguments divide into two families: Agrippan and Cartesian. Arguments in the first family centering on the threat of a vicious regress of justification. Those in the ... More


Epistemic Responsibility in Social Context

Sanford C. Goldberg

in To the Best of Our Knowledge: Social Expectations and Epistemic Normativity

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
April 2018
ISBN:
9780198793670
eISBN:
9780191853203
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198793670.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter addresses a host of worries that one might have about this book’s account of epistemic propriety and epistemic responsibility. Chief among these are worries about the threat of social ... More


Bullshit, Inquiry, and Irresponsibility

Chris Heffer

in All Bullshit and Lies?: Insincerity, Irresponsibility, and the Judgment of Untruthfulness

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
August 2020
ISBN:
9780190923280
eISBN:
9780190923327
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190923280.003.0003
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

This chapter teases out some key theoretical issues relating to the extension of the concept of untruthfulness from sincerity to epistemic irresponsibility, or a lack of care with which speakers act ... More


Epistemic Normativity

Catherine Z. Elgin

in True Enough

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780262036535
eISBN:
9780262341370
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036535.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Epistemic norms are norms of responsible epistemic agency. They are the norms that would emerge from the deliberations of legislating members of a quasi-Kantian realm of epistemic ends. Such ... More


Testimony as a Philosophical Problem

Benjamin McMyler

in Testimony, Trust, and Authority

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199794331
eISBN:
9780199914616
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199794331.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter argues that an important though largely unrecognized shift occurred in the Early Enlightenment period concerning philosophical conceptions of testimony and testimonial knowledge. Whereas ... More


Epistemic Virtues and Vices

Chun Wei Choo

in The Inquiring Organization: How Organizations Acquire Knowledge and Seek Information

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
December 2015
ISBN:
9780199782031
eISBN:
9780190459598
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199782031.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter introduces virtue epistemology, a theory of knowledge based on an evaluation of the character traits of the agent. Knowledge is then a state of belief arising out of acts of epistemic ... More


Knowledge

Hilary Kornblith

in On Reflection

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199563005
eISBN:
9780191745263
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199563005.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Mind

It is tempting to hold that a belief which is held unreflectively is not justified, and therefore, cannot constitute knowledge. Justification seems to be something which we achieve, rather than ... More


Knowledge in Practice

Michael Williams

in Epistemic Evaluation: Purposeful Epistemology

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2015
ISBN:
9780199642632
eISBN:
9780191807145
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199642632.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Knowledge is a deontic concept in the sense that knowing is a matter of asssertional-doxastic rights earned by the fulfillment of epistemic duties. Reliabilists have attacked this traditional ... More


Assertion and Testimony

Sanford C. Goldberg

in Assertion: On the Philosophical Significance of Assertoric Speech

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780198732488
eISBN:
9780191796708
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198732488.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

In this chapter, the norm of assertion is used to account for another feature of assertion’s epistemic significance, having to do with the epistemic entitlements and responsibilities that arise in ... More


Living High and Letting Die: A Puzzle About Behavior Toward People in Great Need

Peter Unger

in Living High and Letting Die: Our Illusion of Innocence

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195108590
eISBN:
9780199868261
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195108590.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter examines both the nature of our Basic Moral Values and the disagreement between Preservationists and Liberationists on when it is wrong not to aid. Basic Moral Values divide into primary ... More


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