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Grounding

Ronald W. Langacker

in Cognitive Grammar: A Basic Introduction

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195331967
eISBN:
9780199868209
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331967.003.0009
Subject:
Linguistics, Syntax and Morphology

Grounding is the grammaticized means of relating the thing profiled by a nominal, or the process profiled by a finite clause, to the ground (the speech event and its participants). As narrowly ... More


Modals: Meaning Categories?

Valentine Hacquard

in Mood, Aspect, Modality Revisited: New Answers to Old Questions

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780226363523
eISBN:
9780226363660
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226363660.003.0002
Subject:
Linguistics, Semantics and Pragmatics

This chapter starts with the observation that the words used to express root and epistemic modality in many different languages systematically differ in their interactions with tense and aspect. ... More


Modals and Generalized Anchoring

Gillian Ramchand

in Situations and Syntactic Structures: Rethinking Auxiliaries and Order in English

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9780262037754
eISBN:
9780262345880
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262037754.003.0006
Subject:
Linguistics, Syntax and Morphology

Previous research on the interaction of tense and modality are discussed and the relevant generalizations extracted. Tense is treated as an anchoring relation between situations and speech events ... More


On a Shared Property of Deontic and Epistemic Modals

Jessica Rett

in Deontic Modality

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780198717928
eISBN:
9780191787393
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198717928.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Epistemic modals encode an evidential restriction, requiring that the speaker have inferential evidence for the prejacent. Stone and von Fintel and Gillies encode this restriction lexically in, e.g., ... More


Modalities of Normality

Seth Yalcin

in Deontic Modality

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780198717928
eISBN:
9780191787393
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198717928.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language, Metaphysics/Epistemology

One path into the semantics of the deontic modals ought and should approaches them indirectly, by starting with an investigation of the non-deontic, seemingly epistemic reading of these modals. Seth ... More


Mirative and Focusing Uses of the Catalan Particle pla *

Gemma Rigau

in Functional Heads: The Cartography of Syntactic Structures, Volume 7

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199746736
eISBN:
9780199949519
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199746736.003.0007
Subject:
Linguistics, Syntax and Morphology

This chapter presents different types of pla in Catalan. In its basic use, pla coappears with some certain quantifiers to act as an epistemic modality adverb. In addition to modifying quantifiers, ... More


More Challenges

Timothy Williamson

in Suppose and Tell: The Semantics and Heuristics of Conditionals

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
August 2020
ISBN:
9780198860662
eISBN:
9780191893391
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198860662.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

This chapter answers further challenges to the truth-functional interpretation of ‘if’. Some challenges depend on data which can be understood in terms of the interplay between supposition-based and ... More


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