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Reproductive organs

A. Schmidt-Rhaesa

in The Evolution of Organ Systems

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198566687
eISBN:
9780191718007
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198566687.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Animals can reproduce in two ways: asexually or sexually. Both modes have advantages and their evolutionary distribution and significance is discussed in this chapter. In sexually reproducing ... More


Evolving Embryology

Jan Sapp

in Genesis: The Evolution of Biology

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195156195
eISBN:
9780199790340
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195156195.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter discusses the development of embryology. Experimental embryology, which began in the 1880s, aimed to discover the actual physicochemical processes by which the adult developed from the ... More


Embedded Cognition and Mental Representation

Robert D. Rupert

in Cognitive Systems and the Extended Mind

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195379457
eISBN:
9780199869114
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195379457.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter contains four sections. The first argues that what are supposed to be the innovative characteristics of embedded representations do not, in fact, differentiate them from representations ... More


Development of the visual system

Ian P. Howard

in Perceiving in Depth: Volume 1 Basic Mechanisms

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199764143
eISBN:
9780199949359
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199764143.003.0205
Subject:
Psychology, Vision, Cognitive Psychology

The chapter starts with a brief outline of how eyes evolved from simple eyespots to complex camera-like eyes. An account of the development of the visual system starts with a description of methods ... More


The Gestation of German Biology: Philosophy and Physiology from Stahl to Schelling

John H. Zammito

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780226520797
eISBN:
9780226520827
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226520827.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This study traces the gestation of German biology from the debate about organism between Stahl and Leibniz to the formulation of developmental morphology in the era of Kielmeyer and Schelling. Over ... More


William Blake and the Time of Ontogeny

Amanda Jo Goldstein

in Systems of Life: Biopolitics, Economics, and Literature on the Cusp of Modernity

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780823281725
eISBN:
9780823284870
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823281725.003.0008
Subject:
Literature, Criticism/Theory

Romantic biology and aesthetics are frequently said to converge in the ideal of “organic form”: the organism, or the artwork, as “organized and self-organizing” cause and effect of itself. ... More


Changing Conceptions of Human Nature

Jane Maienschein and Kate Maccord

in Frankenstein: Annotated for Scientists, Engineers, and Creators of All Kinds

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780262533287
eISBN:
9780262340267
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262533287.003.0008
Subject:
Literature, 19th-century and Victorian Literature

To understand Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein in modern terms, it is useful to go back several millennia to Aristotle’s ideas of what it takes to become fully and normally human.  Victor Frankenstein’s ... More


Kant’s Organicism: Epigenesis and the Development of Critical Philosophy

Jennifer Mensch

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780226021980
eISBN:
9780226022031
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226022031.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Because it laid the foundation for nearly all subsequent epistemologies, Immanuel Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason has overshadowed his other interests in natural history and the life sciences, which ... More


Blake’s Mundane Egg: Epigenesis and Milieux

Amanda Jo Goldstein

in Sweet Science: Romantic Materialism and the New Logics of Life

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780226458441
eISBN:
9780226458588
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226458588.003.0002
Subject:
Literature, 18th-century Literature

This chapter introduces readers to the key problem of “epigenesis” in both Romantic biopoetics and the history of biology in general. Romantic aesthetics and biology are frequently said to converge ... More


Catherine Malabou: The Epigenetic Human

Christopher Watkin

in French Philosophy Today: New Figures of the Human in Badiou, Meillassoux, Malabou, Serres and Latour

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9781474414739
eISBN:
9781474422338
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474414739.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Chapter 4 turns to the question of human identity over time in Malabou. After setting out the stakes of her recent work on epigenesis in Before Tomorrow, the chapter points out some shortcomings of ... More


Developmental Systems Theory as a Process Theory

Paul Griffiths and Karola Stotz

in Everything Flows: Towards a Processual Philosophy of Biology

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
July 2018
ISBN:
9780198779636
eISBN:
9780191824685
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198779636.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Paul Griffiths and Russell D. Gray have argued that the fundamental unit of analysis in developmental systems theory should be a process—the life cycle—and not a set of developmental resources and ... More


Metaphysical Organs and the Emergence of Life: From Leibniz to Blumenbach

Leif Weatherby

in Transplanting the Metaphysical Organ

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780823269402
eISBN:
9780823269457
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823269402.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The chapter treats the development of the term “organ” from Leibniz’s metaphysics through the life sciences of the eighteenth century. Leibniz uses the biological metaphor of “preformation” to ... More


Taking Up the French Challenge: The German Response

John H. Zammito

in The Gestation of German Biology: Philosophy and Physiology from Stahl to Schelling

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780226520797
eISBN:
9780226520827
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226520827.003.0006
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

At mid-century Germans were confronted directly with French vital materialism by the presence in Berlin of Maupertuis and La Mettrie and by the translation of Buffon’s Histoire naturelle into German. ... More


The Order and Organization of Life

Jonathan Sheehan and Dror Wahrman

in Invisible Hands: Self-Organization in the Eighteenth Century

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780226752051
eISBN:
9780226233741
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226233741.003.0004
Subject:
History, European Modern History

The languages of self-organization sustained the eighteenth-century sciences of life. Using them, thinkers such as Buffon, Diderot, Blumenbach, Maupertuis, and la Mettrie grappled with fraught and ... More


The Difficult Birth of the Two-Sex Model

Lincoln Taiz and Lee Taiz

in Flora Unveiled: The Discovery and Denial of Sex in Plants

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2018
ISBN:
9780190490263
eISBN:
9780190868673
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190490263.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

“The Difficult Birth of the Two Sex Model” discusses the discovery of sex in plants, through a combination observation and experiment, which was the crowning achievement of seventeenth-century ... More


Niche construction and semiosis: biocultural and social dynamics

Chris Sinha

in The Social Origins of Language

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199665327
eISBN:
9780191779725
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199665327.003.0003
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics, Psycholinguistics / Neurolinguistics / Cognitive Linguistics

Current developments in theoretical biology, among which niche construction theory is particularly salient, significantly depart from the neo-Darwinian synthesis that dominated 20th century biology, ... More


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