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The Scientific Background

Kristin Shrader-frechette General

in Regulating Toxic Substances: A Philosophy of Science and the Law

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195074369
eISBN:
9780199852932
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195074369.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter provides some scientific background of risk assessment and sets up some of the institutional questions concerning the appropriate evidentiary standards needed within torts and ... More


Epidemiological study design and principles of data analysis: An integrated suite of methods

Raj S. Bhopal

in Concepts of Epidemiology: Integrating the ideas, theories, principles and methods of epidemiology

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199543144
eISBN:
9780191723995
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199543144.003.0009
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Epidemiological studies have apparently distinct designs but are unified by their common goal to understand the frequency and causes of disease, by their strategy of seeking associations between ... More


Epidemiology in the future: Theory, ethics, context, and critical appraisal

Raj S. Bhopal

in Concepts of Epidemiology: Integrating the ideas, theories, principles and methods of epidemiology

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199543144
eISBN:
9780191723995
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199543144.003.0010
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter considers the art of reading and interpreting an epidemiological study, as discussed in the context of epidemiological theory, ethics, and practice. Topics discussed include the ... More


Diet and Nutrition

WALTER C. WILLETT

in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195149616
eISBN:
9780199865062
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195149616.003.0021
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter considers dietary factors that may be important in the cause and prevention of cancer. Topics covered include general approaches to the study of diet and cancer, measurement of diet in ... More


Cardiovascular disease epidemiology

Henry Blackburn

in The Development of Modern Epidemiology: Personal reports from those who were there

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198569541
eISBN:
9780191724077
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569541.003.0007
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter traces the development of the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Formal epidemiological research in cardiovascular diseases took several forms, beginning in 1948. The ... More


Teaching a course in psychiatric epidemiology

Rebecca Fuhrer and Ezra Susser

in Teaching Epidemiology: A guide for teachers in epidemiology, public health and clinical medicine

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199239481
eISBN:
9780191716973
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199239481.003.018
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter serves as a guide for developing a course in psychiatric epidemiology; that is, epidemiological methods applied to the study of psychiatric disorders rather than the epidemiology of ... More


The epidemiological study of mental disorders since the beginning of the twentieth century

Rebecca Fuhrer and Lee Robins

in The Development of Modern Epidemiology: Personal reports from those who were there

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198569541
eISBN:
9780191724077
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569541.003.0009
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter traces the development of the epidemiology of mental disorders. Topics discussed include early epidemiology from 1901–60, improving diagnosis and counting the prevalence of a broad ... More


 Spirits as Concepts

Emma Cohen

in The Mind Possessed: The Cognition of Spirit Possession in an Afro-Brazilian Religious Tradition

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195323351
eISBN:
9780199785575
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195323351.003.0006
Subject:
Religion, World Religions

Chapter 6 considers the form and spread of spirit concepts, drawing heavily on ethnographic data and emerging theories within epidemiological studies of culture. This chapter suggests why spirit ... More


Registries and medical databases

Henrik Toft Sørensen and John A. Baron

in Teaching Epidemiology: A guide for teachers in epidemiology, public health and clinical medicine

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199239481
eISBN:
9780191716973
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199239481.003.027
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The cost, complexity, and risk of selection bias often associated with primary data collection has led to the use of disease registries and databases as an alternative data source for studies of many ... More


Error, bias, confounding and risk modification/interaction in epidemiology

Raj S. Bhopal

in Concepts of Epidemiology: Integrating the ideas, theories, principles and methods of epidemiology

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199543144
eISBN:
9780191723995
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199543144.003.0004
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter utilized the central epidemiological strategy — comparison of populations — to discuss bias. Bias, in an epidemiological context, arises when errors affect comparison groups unequally. ... More


Presentation and interpretation of epidemiological data on risk

Raj S. Bhopal

in Concepts of Epidemiology: Integrating the ideas, theories, principles and methods of epidemiology

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199543144
eISBN:
9780191723995
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199543144.003.0008
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter introduces the ways in which data are manipulated, with a warning that the end results are often artificial measures that change (and sometimes distort) the perception and interpretation ... More


Measuring chronic pain in populations

Clermont E. Dionne

in Chronic Pain Epidemiology: From Aetiology to Public Health

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199235766
eISBN:
9780191594816
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199235766.003.0005
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter reviews ways in which chronic pain has been measured in epidemiological studies. It summarizes a simple approach which emphasizes the need for core standard definitions to describe pain ... More


What is epidemiology?: The nature and scope of a biological, clinical, social, and ecological science and of its variables

Raj S. Bhopal

in Concepts of Epidemiology: Integrating the ideas, theories, principles and methods of epidemiology

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199543144
eISBN:
9780191723995
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199543144.003.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses the concept of epidemiology. Topics covered include definition of epidemiology and a statement of its central paradigm; directions in epidemiology and its uses; epidemiology as ... More


Causal mechanisms for HIA: learning from epidemiology

John Kemm, Jayne Parry, and Stephen Palmer

in Health Impact Assessment

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198526292
eISBN:
9780191723889
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526292.003.0004
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Health impact assessors who wish to advise policy makers and base their health impact assessment (HIA) on the fullest scientific evidence must understand the potential and pitfalls of epidemiology. ... More


Application of Biomarkers in Cancer Epidemiology

MONTSERRAT GARCÍA-CLOSAS, ROEL VERMEULEN, MARK E. SHERMAN, LEE E. MOORE, MARTYN T. SMITH, and NATHANIEL ROTHMAN

in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195149616
eISBN:
9780199865062
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195149616.003.0006
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Biomarkers are increasingly being incorporated into epidemiologic studies of cancer etiology, often referred to as molecular epidemiology. This chapter focuses on the use of biomarkers in the context ... More


Personal exposure monitoring in environmental epidemiology

M.J. Nieuwenhuijsen

in Spatial Epidemiology: Methods and Applications

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198515326
eISBN:
9780191723667
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515326.003.0020
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The exposure to any pollutant is determined by the concentration of the pollutant in the environment, its specific character, and the duration and frequency of contact. Estimates of these ... More


Spatial epidemiology: methods and applications

P. Elliott, J. C. Wakefield, N. G. Best, and D. J. Briggs

in Spatial Epidemiology: Methods and Applications

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198515326
eISBN:
9780191723667
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515326.003.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter provides a general background to spatial epidemiological studies. It discusses issues that are pertinent to their analysis and interpretation, including the underlying statistical ... More


Bias and confounding in spatial epidemiology

P. Elliott and J. C. Wakefield

in Spatial Epidemiology: Methods and Applications

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198515326
eISBN:
9780191723667
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515326.003.0005
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter addresses some of the issues affecting the interpretation of spatial epidemiological studies. It separates the two concepts of bias and confounding. In general, bias and confounding are ... More


Assessment of disease risk in relation to a pre-specified source

S. E. Morris and J. C. Wakefield

in Spatial Epidemiology: Methods and Applications

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198515326
eISBN:
9780191723667
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515326.003.0009
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter reviews specific problems of the assessment of disease risk in relation to a pre-specified source. The chapter proceeds as follows. Section 9.2 provides a context for point-source ... More


Study designs which can demonstrate and test causation

J. Mark Elwood

in Critical Appraisal of Epidemiological Studies and Clinical Trials

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198529552
eISBN:
9780191723865
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529552.003.02
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter is divided into two parts. The first part describes the key study designs used in clinical and epidemiological studies of causation. The designs are defined by two features: whether the ... More


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