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Epidemiologic Evaluation of Environmental Hazards

Thomas J. Smith and David Kriebel

in A Biologic Approach to Environmental Assessment and Epidemiology

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195141566
eISBN:
9780199872145
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195141566.003.0007
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Epidemiology is the study of determinants of disease in populations, and environmental epidemiology generally concerns the identification of health risks from synthetic chemicals or other exposures ... More


Dosimetry in Epidemiology

Thomas J. Smith and David Kriebel

in A Biologic Approach to Environmental Assessment and Epidemiology

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195141566
eISBN:
9780199872145
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195141566.003.0009
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses the use of biologically based models of exposure and dose in epidemiologic studies. It describes how dose metrics can be used in epidemiologic models and discusses some of the ... More


Teaching molecular epidemiology

Betsy Foxman

in Teaching Epidemiology: A guide for teachers in epidemiology, public health and clinical medicine

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199239481
eISBN:
9780191716973
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199239481.003.013
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The application of molecular tools in epidemiology is not new, particularly for infectious diseases. However, the number of molecular tools available and range of potential applications have grown ... More


Uncertainty in Measuring Risk

Thomas J. Smith and David Kriebel

in A Biologic Approach to Environmental Assessment and Epidemiology

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195141566
eISBN:
9780199872145
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195141566.003.0008
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter reviews several important sources of uncertainty in epidemiologic studies and summarizes approaches to managing these uncertainties. It identifies five different sources of uncertainty ... More


Obesity Epidemiology

Frank Hu (ed.)

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195312911
eISBN:
9780199865260
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195312911.001.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

During the past twenty years there has been a dramatic increase in obesity in the United States. An estimated 30% of adults in the US are obese; in 1980, only 15% were. The issue is gaining greater ... More


Diet and Coronary Heart Disease

Walter Willett

in Nutritional Epidemiology

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195122978
eISBN:
9780199864249
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195122978.003.17
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

According to the classic “diet-heart” hypothesis, high intake of saturated fats and cholesterol and low intake of polyunsaturated fats increase the level of serum cholesterol, which leads to the ... More


Diet, Nutrition, and Obesity

Frank B. Hu

in Obesity Epidemiology

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195312911
eISBN:
9780199865260
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195312911.003.0014
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter briefly reviews evidence from epidemiologic studies and clinical trials regarding the effects of macronutrients on body weight. It then describes epidemiologic studies with respect to ... More


Reversible Proportional Disease Processes: Effects of Ammonia and Ozone on Respiratory Symptoms

Thomas J. Smith and David Kriebel

in A Biologic Approach to Environmental Assessment and Epidemiology

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195141566
eISBN:
9780199872145
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195141566.003.0011
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter illustrates the modeling of reversible proportional disease processes using two examples. It first continues to use the simple case of ammonia leading to eye irritation that was ... More


Ethical Issues in the Interaction with Research Subjects and the Disclosure of Results

Andrea Smith and Paul A. Schulte

in Ethics and Epidemiology

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195322934
eISBN:
9780199864416
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322934.003.0007
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Developments in epidemiologic methods such as large-scale cohort studies and the increased use of molecular and genomic samples have created new challenges in disclosure. Since epidemiology is ... More


Analytic Epidemiologic Designs in Obesity Research

Frank B. Hu

in Obesity Epidemiology

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195312911
eISBN:
9780199865260
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195312911.003.0003
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter reviews analytic epidemiologic study designs and research into the consequences and determinants of obesity. These include ecological studies, cross-sectional studies, case-control ... More


Overview of Study Designs

Harvey Checkoway, Neil Pearce, and David Kriebel

in Research Methods in Occupational Epidemiology

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195092424
eISBN:
9780199864553
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195092424.003.0003
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The choice of epidemiologic study design is largely dictated by the health outcomes of primary interest, feasibility, and availability of valid exposure data. This chapter provides brief descriptions ... More


Where Do We Go From Here?

Thomas J. Smith and David Kriebel

in A Biologic Approach to Environmental Assessment and Epidemiology

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195141566
eISBN:
9780199872145
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195141566.003.0016
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The previous chapters laid out a systematic approach for constructing disease process models and their related dose metrics, which can advance the integration of exposure assessment and epidemiology. ... More


Anthropometric Measures and Body Composition

Walter Willett and Frank Hu

in Nutritional Epidemiology

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199754038
eISBN:
9780199979448
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199754038.003.0009
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology, Public Health

Anthropometric variables, particularly weight and height, are the most commonly employed measures of nutritional status in epidemiologic studies due to their simplicity and ease of collection. In ... More


Reversible Discrete Disease Processes: Asthma and Indoor Air, Dermatitis and Metalworking Fluids

Thomas J. Smith and David Kriebel

in A Biologic Approach to Environmental Assessment and Epidemiology

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195141566
eISBN:
9780199872145
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195141566.003.0014
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter illustrates the application of the disease process model approach to discrete reversible disease processes. The process model approach is applied in five steps: (1) identifying and ... More


Ethics and Epidemiology in the Age of AIDS

Carol Levine

in Ethics and Epidemiology

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195322934
eISBN:
9780199864416
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322934.003.0010
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter begins with a general discussion of ethics and epidemiology. It then focuses on five examples which illustrate the interrelationship of ethics and epidemiology in the case of AIDS. The ... More


Diet and Coronary Heart Disease

Walter Willett and Meir Stampfer

in Nutritional Epidemiology

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199754038
eISBN:
9780199979448
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199754038.003.0019
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology, Public Health

According to the classic “diet-heart” hypothesis, high intake of saturated fats and cholesterol and low intake of polyunsaturated fats increase the level of serum cholesterol, which leads to the ... More


Correction for the Effects of Measurement Error

Walter Willett

in Nutritional Epidemiology

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195122978
eISBN:
9780199864249
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195122978.003.12
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter addresses the effect of measurement error in epidemiologic studies and statistical methods to compensate for measurement error. Topics covered include types of error, correction of ... More


Dietary Fat and Breast Cancer

Walter Willett

in Nutritional Epidemiology

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195122978
eISBN:
9780199864249
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195122978.003.16
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter reviews studies on the link between dietary fat and breast cancer. These include ecologic studies, migrant studies, special populations, secular trends, case-control studies, and ... More


Twin Studies of Heritability

Ezra Susser, Sharon Schwartz, Alfredo Morabia, and Evelyn J. Bromet

in Psychiatric Epidemiology: Searching for the Causes of Mental Disorders

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195101812
eISBN:
9780199864096
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195101812.003.31
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter focuses on the methodological issues arising from the discrepancy between the results of heritability studies and epidemiologic designs. It focuses on the basic principles of the ... More


Assessing Scientific Evidence for Public Health Action

Ross C. Brownson, Elizabeth A. Baker, Terry L. Leet, Kathleen N. Gillespie, and William R. True

in Evidence-Based Public Health

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195397895
eISBN:
9780199827183
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195397895.003.0002
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

In most areas of public health and clinical practice, decisions on when to intervene and which program or policy to implement are not simple and straightforward. These decisions are often based on ... More


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