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Adaptive radiation: diversity and specialization

Graham Bell

in Selection: The Mechanism of Evolution

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780198569725
eISBN:
9780191717741
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569725.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Selection in complex and structured environments is likely to cause the divergence of differently adapted lines. This will lead to a diverse array of specialized types, or to one or a few broad ... More


Shaping Social Environments with Simple Recognition Heuristics

Peter M. Todd and Annerieke Heuvelink

in The Innate Mind: Volume 2: Culture and Cognition

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780195310139
eISBN:
9780199871209
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195310139.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Agents can shape their environment through the decisions they make, and when they do this in a coordinated manner, profound structure can emerge. Previously, the authors of this chapter have shown ... More


What Is Ecological Rationality?

Peter M. Todd and Gerd Gigerenzer

in Ecological Rationality: Intelligence in the World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195315448
eISBN:
9780199932429
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315448.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

In our uncertain world, more information and computation do not always yield better decisions—simple heuristics that employ few cues and little processing can often match or beat optimizing ... More


Rethinking Cognitive Biases as Environmental Consequences

Gerd Gigerenzer, Klaus Fiedler, and Henrik Olsson

in Ecological Rationality: Intelligence in the World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195315448
eISBN:
9780199932429
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315448.003.0025
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

Cognitive processes and their adaptive functions can hardly be understood if we look exclusively inside the mind, such as when we try to explain behavior with traits, attitudes, or preferences. ... More


Ecological Rationality: Intelligence in the World

Peter M. Todd and Gerd Gigerenzer

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195315448
eISBN:
9780199932429
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315448.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

The idea that more information and more computation yield better decisions has long shaped our vision of rationality. Yet humans and other animals typically rely on simple heuristics or rules of ... More


Car Parking as a Game Between Simple Heuristics

John M. C. Hutchinson, Carola Fanselow, and Peter M. Todd

in Ecological Rationality: Intelligence in the World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195315448
eISBN:
9780199932429
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315448.003.0133
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

Selecting a parking space is a sequential-search problem, with the pattern of spaces available to search determined by where others have parked. Earlier optimality models of parking ignored this ... More


Complete Positivity

Chris Heunen and Jamie Vicary

in Categories for Quantum Theory: An Introduction

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9780198739623
eISBN:
9780191802584
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198739623.003.0007
Subject:
Mathematics, Mathematical Physics, Applied Mathematics

Completely positive maps give a notion of quantum process that allows the description of probabilistic effects in quantum theory. We show how to describe this categorically in terms of the CP ... More


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