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Perturbation Theory

P.J.E. Peebles

in Quantum Mechanics

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780691209821
eISBN:
9780691206738
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691209821.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter examines applications drawn from perturbation theory. The main topic in perturbation theory is the energy and spontaneous decay rate of the 21-cm hyperfine line in atomic hydrogen. ... More


Elements of atomic spectroscopy

Vladilen Letokhov and Sveneric Johansson

in Astrophysical Lasers

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199548279
eISBN:
9780191720512
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199548279.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter illustrates atomic structures of increasing complexity by using energy level diagrams of atoms or ions, for which fluorescence and natural laser radiation have been proposed. It defines ... More


THE NATURE OF ATOMS

C. N. Hinshelwood

in The Structure of Physical Chemistry

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198570257
eISBN:
9780191717659
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570257.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter discusses the structure of atoms. Topics covered include electrons, electron waves, the nuclear atom, atomic structure, energy levels, interpretation of quantum numbers, spectra and ... More


The Growth of S2: Potentiality and Actuality

Daniel W. Graham

in Aristotle's Two Systems

Published in print:
1990
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198243151
eISBN:
9780191680649
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198243151.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter presents theories that were peripheral to S1 and states that they were transformed under the pressure of new principles to become key components of a new system. Since the important ... More


Bonding and Spectra of Molecules and Solids

Kannan M. Krishnan

in Principles of Materials Characterization and Metrology

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
July 2021
ISBN:
9780198830252
eISBN:
9780191868665
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198830252.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The electronic structure of molecules includes electronic (2-10 eV, UV-Vis absorption), vibrational (10-2 - 2 eV, infrared spectroscopy & Raman scattering), and rotational (10–5 – 10–3 eV, microwave ... More


Energy levels

B. K. Ridley FRS

in Quantum Processes in Semiconductors

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199677214
eISBN:
9780191760624
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199677214.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter examines energy levels in semiconductors, first by discussing effective-mass approximation and electron dynamics as well as Zener-Bloch oscillations. It then discusses Landau levels, ... More


Frequency and Energy Levels

Philip Isett

in Hölder Continuous Euler Flows in Three Dimensions with Compact Support in Time

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691174822
eISBN:
9781400885428
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691174822.003.0009
Subject:
Mathematics, Computational Mathematics / Optimization

This chapter shows how to measure the Hölder regularity of the weak solutions that are constructed when the scheme is executed more carefully. For this aspect of the convex integration scheme, a ... More


Checking Frequency Energy Levels for the Velocity and Pressure

Philip Isett

in Hölder Continuous Euler Flows in Three Dimensions with Compact Support in Time

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691174822
eISBN:
9781400885428
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691174822.003.0024
Subject:
Mathematics, Computational Mathematics / Optimization

This chapter checks frequency energy levels for the velocity and pressure. It begins by comparing the different estimates obtained for the corrections to the velocity and the pressure with the Main ... More


Electrons in Solids

Michael E. Mackay

in Solar Energy: An Introduction

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780199652105
eISBN:
9780191801969
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199652105.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Electrons in solids and how materials interact with solar energy (radiation) are presented. Electrons absorb solar radiation and are promoted to a higher energy level, which is how matter interacts ... More


The Main Iteration Lemma

Philip Isett

in Hölder Continuous Euler Flows in Three Dimensions with Compact Support in Time

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691174822
eISBN:
9781400885428
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691174822.003.0010
Subject:
Mathematics, Computational Mathematics / Optimization

This chapter properly formalizes the Main Lemma, first by discussing the frequency energy levels for the Euler-Reynolds equations. Here the bounds are all consistent with the symmetries of the Euler ... More


The Coulomb problem in n space dimensions

Adam M. Bincer

in Lie Groups and Lie Algebras: A Physicist's Perspective

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199662920
eISBN:
9780191745492
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199662920.003.0021
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The Hamiltonian for the Coulomb problem in n space dimensions is given. It involves the two n-vectors R and P , which ... More


Who Are ‘Young People’?

Francis Wing-lin Lee

in Nurturing Pillars of Society: Understanding and Working with the Young Generation in Hong Kong

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9789888028801
eISBN:
9789882207226
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789888028801.003.0001
Subject:
Society and Culture, Asian Studies

Although age criterion is commonly used to define who young people are, a criterion that concerns mentality allows people who are outside the usual age bracket to be considered as young people, ... More


LS coupling; Hund’s rules

Geoffrey Brooker

in Essays in Physics: Thirty-two thoughtful essays on topics in undergraduate-level physics

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9780198857242
eISBN:
9780191890284
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198857242.003.0016
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

“LS coupling; Hund's rules” describes LS coupling as it gives an account of our understanding of atomic states. Two “energy-level” diagrams commonly printed are shown to be wrong and highly ... More


Judgements Of Personality

Henry A. Murray

in Explorations in Personality

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195305067
eISBN:
9780199894253
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195305067.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter begins by explaining that in its first stages, the diagnosis of personality consists of crudely quantitative estimates of the attributes which successively attract attention. It then ... More


Laser Beams

Helmut Satz

in The Rules of the Flock: Self-Organization and Swarm Structure in Animal Societies

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
March 2020
ISBN:
9780198853398
eISBN:
9780191888052
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198853398.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Soft Matter / Biological Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

In atoms, the electron orbits around the nucleus are quantized, occur for discrete energies. Transitions between energy levels require absorption or emission of photons. In the case of an unusual ... More


Atom–Field Interactions

Stephen C. Rand

in Lectures on Light: Nonlinear and Quantum Optics using the Density Matrix

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780198757450
eISBN:
9780191817830
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198757450.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

Chapter 3 discusses the interaction Hamiltonian, which determines the way that light interacts with matter. Simple perturbative analysis is applied to see if basic dynamics of atoms can be explained. ... More


The hydrogen atom and the periodic table

L. Solymar, D. Walsh, and R. R. A. Syms

in Electrical Properties of Materials

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
October 2018
ISBN:
9780198829942
eISBN:
9780191868504
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198829942.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

Investigates the energy levels in a configuration when a heavy positive particle (proton) and a light negative particle (electron) are present. The wave functions and permissible energy levels are ... More


Structure of the Book

Philip Isett

in Hölder Continuous Euler Flows in Three Dimensions with Compact Support in Time

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691174822
eISBN:
9781400885428
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691174822.003.0002
Subject:
Mathematics, Computational Mathematics / Optimization

This chapter provides an overview of the book's structure. Section 3 deals with the error terms which need to be controlled, whereas Part III explains some notation of the book and presents a basic ... More


Bose–Einstein Statistics

Robert H. Swendsen

in An Introduction to Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
February 2020
ISBN:
9780198853237
eISBN:
9780191887703
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198853237.003.0028
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The properties of the ideal Bose gas are calculated from the integral equations for the energy and the number of particles as a function of the temperature and chemical potential. It is shown that ... More


Spin-coupled Mechanical Systems

Ania Bleszynski Jayich

in Quantum Optomechanics and Nanomechanics: Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 105, August 2015

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
April 2020
ISBN:
9780198828143
eISBN:
9780191866920
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198828143.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

A hybrid system composed of a spin coupled to a mechanical degree of freedom is interesting for several reasons: enhancing the functionality of the spin and of the mechanical system, and in the ... More


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