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Traditional Farming

Vaclav Smil

in Energy and Civilization: A History

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780262035774
eISBN:
9780262338301
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262035774.003.0003
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This chapter discusses the use of energy in traditional farming. The evolution of agriculture appears to be a continuing effort to increase land productivity (to increase digestible energy yield) in ... More


Anomalous spectral effects in the Weigelt blobs of Eta Carinae

Vladilen Letokhov and Sveneric Johansson

in Astrophysical Lasers

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199548279
eISBN:
9780191720512
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199548279.003.0010
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

Astrophysical lasers in the visible and near-IR ranges have been discovered in the Weigelt blobs of the luminous blue variable (LBV) star Eta Carinae (η Car). This massive and luminous star is a most ... More


Simple Models of the Casimir Effect

M. Bordag, G. L. Klimchitskaya, U. Mohideen, and V. M. Mostepanenko

in Advances in the Casimir Effect

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199238743
eISBN:
9780191716461
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199238743.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter discusses several basic ideas and methods related to the calculation of the Casimir energies and forces using some simple models. The simplicity of these models means that cumbersome ... More


Urban Systems and Spatial Competition

Roger White, Guy Engelen, and Inge Uljee

in Modeling Cities and Regions As Complex Systems: From Theory to Planning Applications

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262029568
eISBN:
9780262331371
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029568.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Environmental Politics

The structure of a system of retail centres as described by their size, composition, and location, is a result of competition among the centres for customers. The evolution of the system is described ... More


Physical Optics of Plane Waves

John Weiner and Frederico Nunes

in Light-Matter Interaction: Physics and Engineering at the Nanoscale, Second Edition

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
March 2017
ISBN:
9780198796664
eISBN:
9780191837920
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198796664.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Chapter 3 introduces the phasor representation, as well as the first mention of the expressions for energy density and energy flux. These key notions recur continually throughout the book in various ... More


The Biophysical: The Decline in Energy Returned on Energy Invested, Net Energy, and Marginal Benefits

Jack P. Manno and Stephen B. Balogh

in Ending the Fossil Fuel Era

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780262028806
eISBN:
9780262327077
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028806.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Environmental Politics

In this chapter, Manno and Balogh articulate a biophysical logic that complements the social, political, and ethical arguments against the unfettered extraction of fossil fuels. They argue that ... More


The Changing Energy Mix: A Systematic Comparison of Renewable and Nonrenewable Energy

Paul F. Meier

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9780190098391
eISBN:
9780190098421
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190098391.001.0001
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Sustainability

The energy mix is changing, and renewable energy is growing in importance. If you were born before 1989, you lived in a United States where no electricity was generated from either wind or solar ... More


Hard and Soft Magnets

Kannan M. Krishnan

in Fundamentals and Applications of Magnetic Materials

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
December 2016
ISBN:
9780199570447
eISBN:
9780191813504
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199570447.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

A hard/permanent magnet can alone support a magnetic flux in a gap of a device; a soft magnet requires the assistance of an external electrical/magnetic input to do so. A hard/permanent magnet ... More


Surface Wind Waves

Eric B. Kraus and Joost A. Businger

in Atmosphere-Ocean Interaction

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195066180
eISBN:
9780197560204
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195066180.003.0008
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Oceanography and Hydrology

Rhythmic and monotonously repetitive, but quite unpredictable in its details, the structure of the sea surface is an epitome of the natural world. Surface waves have been studied actively by ... More


Estimation of Productivity and the Construction of Energy Budgets

Peter A. Henderson

in Southwood's Ecological Methods

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780198862277
eISBN:
9780191895067
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198862277.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies, Ecology

Methods to assess the size of a population and the interactions between populations in terms of biomass (weight of living material) or energy content are described. Biomass can be expressed as wet ... More


Electromagnetic energy

Geoffrey Brooker

in Essays in Physics: Thirty-two thoughtful essays on topics in undergraduate-level physics

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9780198857242
eISBN:
9780191890284
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198857242.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

“Electromagnetic energy” takes a hard look at the reasoning by which energy density and energy flow (Poynting vector) are deduced from Maxwell's equations. What can be proved and what, lacking proof, ... More


Product Marketing

James Wei

in Product Engineering: Molecular Structure and Properties

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195159172
eISBN:
9780197561997
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195159172.003.0015
Subject:
Chemistry, Physical Chemistry

A marketer should follow the maxim of the 4th century BC strategist Sun-zi, who said “Know self, know opponents, hundred battles, hundred victories.” We are the chemical processing industries ... More


Elastic Behavior of Solids

J. B. Ketterson

in The Physics of Solids

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
December 2016
ISBN:
9780198742906
eISBN:
9780191821523
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198742906.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter analyzes the response of solids to stress. The defining property of a solid is its ability to resist shape changes in the presence of external stresses. Stress, defined as force per unit ... More


Limitations and Peculiarities of the Standard Models

Alvaro De Rújula

in Enjoy Our Universe: You Have No Other Choice

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
February 2020
ISBN:
9780198817802
eISBN:
9780191859366
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198817802.003.0030
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Back to how peculiar the recipe to cook an inflationary universe is, with its mysterious cosmological constant and dark matter components. The arbitrary parameters of the Standard Model of particles ... More


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