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What Is an Ontology?

Robert Arp, Barry Smith, and Andrew D. Spear

in Building Ontologies With Basic Formal Ontology

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262527811
eISBN:
9780262329583
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262527811.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Words, pictures, theories, and ideas are representations. We use them primarily in order to represent entities in reality and sometimes also in other ways. An ontology is made out of multiple ... More


 Terms—singular and plural

Alex Oliver and Timothy Smiley

in Plural Logic

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199570423
eISBN:
9780191755866
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199570423.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics, Philosophy of Language

Having previously dispatched singularism, this chapter turns to plural logic. First comes philosophical logic, beginning with the notion of a term. Singular and plural terms are different species of ... More


 Singular logic

Alex Oliver and Timothy Smiley

in Plural Logic

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199570423
eISBN:
9780191755866
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199570423.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics, Philosophy of Language

This chapter introduces the base logic, a system of singular logic. It is markedly different from the classical predicate calculus, for besides accommodating unique (singular) descriptions and ... More


Wondering about Witches

David Braun

in Fictional Objects

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780198735595
eISBN:
9780191799631
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198735595.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter discusses certain semantic problems raised by ‘witch’, ‘unicorn’, and other general terms that seem to apply to nothing. It also discusses issues about belief and other attitudes raised ... More


Terms—singular and plural

Alex Oliver and Timothy Smiley

in Plural Logic: Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
February 2017
ISBN:
9780198744382
eISBN:
9780191843877
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198744382.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics, Philosophy of Language

Having previously dispatched singularism, this chapter turns to plural logic. First comes philosophical logic, beginning with the notion of a term. Singular and plural terms are different species of ... More


Singular logic

Alex Oliver and Timothy Smiley

in Plural Logic: Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
February 2017
ISBN:
9780198744382
eISBN:
9780191843877
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198744382.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics, Philosophy of Language

This chapter introduces the base logic, a system of singular logic. It is markedly different from the classical predicate calculus, for besides accommodating unique (singular) descriptions and ... More


Empty Reference

Stephen Mumford

in Absence and Nothing: The Philosophy of What There is Not

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
November 2021
ISBN:
9780198831532
eISBN:
9780191869303
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198831532.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

We seem able to talk about things that do not exist, such as centaurs, Oliver Twist, and the highest prime. But the axiom of existence tells us that we can refer to something only if it exists, since ... More


Against the Semantic View II: AGAINST RIVAL EXPLANATIONS

Pekka Väyrynen

in The Lewd, the Rude and the Nasty: A Study of Thick Concepts in Ethics

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199314751
eISBN:
9780199369225
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199314751.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

The chapter considers rival explanations of the data presented in chapter 3 which are compatible with the Semantic View. These accounts are argued to be inferior, in the light of standard ... More


Coreference De Jure

François Recanati

in Singular Thought and Mental Files

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
March 2020
ISBN:
9780198746881
eISBN:
9780191809101
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198746881.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

In the recent literature, the relation of coreference de jure (the CDJ relation, for short) is characterized roughly as follows: that relation holds between two singular terms (tokens) in a discourse ... More


Empty Singular Terms in the Mental File Framework

François Recanati

in Empty Representations

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2014
ISBN:
9780199647057
eISBN:
9780191761041
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199647057.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Mental files, in this chapter’s framework, function as ‘singular terms in the language of thought’; they serve to think about objects in the world (and to store information about them). But they have ... More


Factivity, Transparency, and Weak Coreference De Jure

François Recanati

in Mental Files in Flux

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
December 2016
ISBN:
9780198790358
eISBN:
9780191837029
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198790358.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language, Philosophy of Mind

Because coreference de jure is a coreference relation that holds in virtue of meaning, whoever grasps the meaning knows that the relation obtains. Since knowledge is factive, coreference de jure ... More


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