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Physical Realization

Sydney Shoemaker

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199214396
eISBN:
9780191706738
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199214396.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This book addresses the question of how mental properties and other properties not thought of as physical can be instantiated in a world of which physicalism is true. In such a world, the ... More


Functional Properties, Emergent Properties, and Phony Properties

Sydney Shoemaker

in Physical Realization

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199214396
eISBN:
9780191706738
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199214396.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter argues that functional properties are not the only properties that can be realized by other properties, and are not a distinct ontological category of properties. The ‘mixed view’ that ... More


Strong and Weak Emergence

David J. Chalmers

in The Re-Emergence of Emergence: The Emergentist Hypothesis from Science to Religion

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199544318
eISBN:
9780191701351
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199544318.003.0011
Subject:
Religion, Theology, Philosophy of Religion

A high-level phenomenon is strongly emergent with respect to a low-level domain when the high-level phenomenon arises from the low-level domain, but truths concerning that phenomenon are not ... More


Are agent-causal powers reducible to microproperties?

Erasmus Mayr

in Understanding Human Agency

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199606214
eISBN:
9780191731631
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199606214.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Even if powers are not reducible to non-power properties, still a human agent's abilities to act might be reducible to microproperties, which would leave the agent himself devoid of a truly causal ... More


Technical Artifacts, Engineering Practice, and Emergence

Peter Kroes

in Functions in Biological and Artificial Worlds: Comparative Philosophical Perspectives

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262113212
eISBN:
9780262255271
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262113212.003.0016
Subject:
Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies

This chapter is concerned with the topic of emergent properties of technical artifacts. It suggests that three issues related to the occurrence of emergent features in technical systems are ... More


What Neural Network Models Can and Cannot Explain about Cognition

Cyriel M. A. Pennartz

in The Brain's Representational Power: On Consciousness and the Integration of Modalities

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262029315
eISBN:
9780262330121
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029315.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

What are neural network models, what kind of cognitive processes can they perform, and what do they teach us about representations and consciousness? First, this chapter explains the functioning of ... More


‘Look Again’, ‘Listen, Listen’, ‘Keep Looking’: Emergent Properties and Sensorimotor Imagining in Mary Oliver’s Poetry

Kathryn Banks

in Reading Beyond the Code: Literature and Relevance Theory

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
June 2018
ISBN:
9780198794776
eISBN:
9780191836268
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198794776.003.0008
Subject:
Literature, Criticism/Theory

This chapter offers a way of understanding the effects of poetic images (metaphorical or literal). It employs and extends the notion of ‘emergent properties’, as well as relevance theory’s account of ... More


Governing Complex Systems: Social Capital for the Anthropocene

Oran R. Young

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780262035934
eISBN:
9780262338899
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262035934.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Public Policy

Governing for sustainability in a world of complex systems will require new social capital in the form of innovative steering mechanisms that differ in important respects from those familiar to us ... More


The Autonomy of the Life Sciences

Stephen Gaukroger

in Civilization and the Culture of Science: Science and the Shaping of Modernity, 1795-1935

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
February 2020
ISBN:
9780198849070
eISBN:
9780191883347
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198849070.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter explores the development of physiology and the reductionist aspirations of nineteenth-century physiology. It is shown that the scientific standing of physiology is not dependent on the ... More


Reductionism and the Irreducibility of Consciousness

John Searle

in Emergence: Contemporary Readings in Philosophy and Science

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262026215
eISBN:
9780262268011
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262026215.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter explores a number of issues surrounding the term “supervenience” as related to “emergentism,” and discusses topics such as emergent properties, reductionism, why consciousness is an ... More


Introduction

Patricia S. Churchland and Terrence J. Sejnowski

in The Computational Brain

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780262533393
eISBN:
9780262339650
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262533393.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This book introduces a conceptual framework for brain function based on large populations of neurons. It advances the hypothesis that emergent properties are high-level effects that depend on ... More


Composing the World

Eric T. Freyfogle

in Our Oldest Task: Making Sense of Our Place in Nature

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780226326399
eISBN:
9780226326429
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226326429.003.0002
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This chapter explains the considerable difficulty we have in making sense of the world and finding our place in it. To undertake that task we need to start with the most basic questions about how we ... More


Complexity Theory: an Overview

Aaron Pycroft

in Applying complexity theory: Whole systems approaches to criminal justice and social work

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9781447311409
eISBN:
9781447311430
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447311409.003.0002
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

Through introducing the key concepts that are foundational to an understanding of complexity theory and its relevance to criminal justice and social work, Chapter One provides important contextual ... More


Cognitive Figures

Terence Cave

in Thinking with Literature: Towards a Cognitive Criticism

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198749417
eISBN:
9780191817328
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198749417.003.0006
Subject:
Literature, Criticism/Theory, Film, Media, and Cultural Studies

This chapter returns to the question of literary ‘images’ in relation to the everyday use of figures, arguing that they are not ‘pictures’, but sensory imaginings, affordances serving cognitive ends. ... More


The origins of photosynthesis: what are the salient characteristics of living systems?

Anthony Trewavas

in Plant Behaviour and Intelligence

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2014
ISBN:
9780199539543
eISBN:
9780191788291
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199539543.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

Organisms that developed independent existence had to rely on external sources of energy and, in plants, photosynthesis was probably the end of an evolutionary process that saw cells free living in ... More


The emergence of systems thinking in behaviour change: a public health focus

Esther Trenchard-Mabere

in Beyond behaviour change: "Key issues, interdisciplinary approaches and future directions"

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9781447317555
eISBN:
9781447317579
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447317555.003.0013
Subject:
Sociology, Politics, Social Movements and Social Change

Simple or ‘complicated’ systems that display linear, predictable behaviours are contrasted with complex systems characterised by ‘emergent properties’ arising from inter-relationships between parts, ... More


The Dynamics on Single Networks

Ginestra Bianconi

in Multilayer Networks: Structure and Function

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
July 2018
ISBN:
9780198753919
eISBN:
9780191815676
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198753919.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter provides the relevant background on the network dynamics of complex networks formed by just one layer (single networks). Emergent properties of network dynamics are characterized using ... More


Multilayer Network Models

Ginestra Bianconi

in Multilayer Networks: Structure and Function

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
July 2018
ISBN:
9780198753919
eISBN:
9780191815676
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198753919.003.0010
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter presents the existing modelling frameworks for multiplex and multilayer networks. Multiplex network models are divided into growing multiplex network models and null models of multiplex ... More


Mind, Brain, and Behavior

Alvaro Pascual-Leone and Adolfo Plasencia

in Is the Universe a Hologram?: Scientists Answer the Most Provocative Questions

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780262036016
eISBN:
9780262339308
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036016.003.0024
Subject:
Society and Culture, Technology and Society

In this dialogue, the Harvard neuroscientist, Alvaro Pascual-Leone initially reflects on the importance of ‘unlearning’ and forgetting. He then gives a detailed explanation of, and how he carries ... More


Cellular Automaton Games

Daniel Friedman and Barry Sinervo

in Evolutionary Games in Natural, Social, and Virtual Worlds

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780199981151
eISBN:
9780190466657
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199981151.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Behavioural Economics

This chapter formalizes spatial strategic interaction as games on grids. It develops cellular automata examples ranging from Conway’s classic Game of Life to complex cooperation, and revisits several ... More


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