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Matter and Energy

Manfred Eigen

in From Strange Simplicity to Complex Familiarity: A Treatise on Matter, Information, Life and Thought

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780198570219
eISBN:
9780191748974
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570219.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

“We do not really know what energy is”. This was the conclusion of Richard Feynman, who in the 20th century contributed so much to our understanding of the nature of energy. The first chapter deals ... More


The Presumed Extensivity of Entropy

T. Grandy Walter

in Entropy and the Time Evolution of Macroscopic Systems

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199546176
eISBN:
9780191720161
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199546176.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter examines the requirement that entropy be an extensive function of extensive variables, along with the possible connection to the indistinguishability of elementary particles.


New Horizons

HELGE S. KRAGH

in Conceptions of Cosmos: From Myths to the Accelerating Universe: A History of Cosmology

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199209163
eISBN:
9780191706219
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199209163.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter summarizes the most important developments in theoretical and observational cosmology from about 1970 to 2005. On the theoretical side, the inflationary scenario of the very early ... More


s e v e n The Physical Monadology and theElements of Nature

Martin Schöneld

in The Philosophy of the Young Kant: The Precritical Project

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780195132182
eISBN:
9780199786336
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195132181.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter explores Kant’s professorial thesis, The Joint Use of Metaphysics and Geometry in Natural Philosophy, the First Example of Which Contains the Physical Monadology (1756). Section 1 ... More


It Takes More Than All Kinds to Make a World

Marc Lange

in Carving Nature at Its Joints: Natural Kinds in Metaphysics and Science

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262015936
eISBN:
9780262298780
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262015936.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter presents arguments positing that there is an important sense in which it takes more than all of the actual kinds to make a world, contrary to the popular saying that goes “it takes all ... More


The Universe in a Helium Droplet

Grigory E. Volovik

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199564842
eISBN:
9780191709906
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199564842.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

There are fundamental relations between three vast areas of physics: particle physics, cosmology, and condensed matter physics. The fundamental links between the first two areas — in other words, ... More


Dissecting Matter

Gian Francesco Giudice

in A Zeptospace Odyssey: A Journey into the Physics of the LHC

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199581917
eISBN:
9780191723001
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199581917.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter recounts the historical process that led to the understanding that matter is not a continuous substance, but comes in lumps. The philosophical concept of atoms, postulated by the Greek ... More


Newtonianism, Reductionism and the Art of Congressional Testimony

Stephen Weinberg

in Emergence: Contemporary Readings in Philosophy and Science

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262026215
eISBN:
9780262268011
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262026215.003.0022
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter discusses the philosophy of science as distinguished from a discussion about science itself. It attempts to show how the construction of a large new accelerator for elementary particle ... More


Conclusion

VOLOVIK GRIGORY E.

in The Universe in a Helium Droplet

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199564842
eISBN:
9780191709906
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199564842.003.0033
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

According to the modern view, elementary particles (electrons, neutrinos, quarks, etc.) are excitations of some more fundamental medium called the quantum vacuum. This is the new aether of the 21st ... More


The Origin of Mass: Elementary Particles and Fundamental Symmetries

John Iliopoulos

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780198805175
eISBN:
9780191843259
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198805175.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, History of Physics

Why do most ‘elementary particles’ which form the constituents of all matter have a non-zero mass? Strange question, apparently in contradiction with our physical intuition. In this little book we ... More


Zhuangzi: The Happy Fish

Hideki Yukawa

in Zhuangzi and the Happy Fish

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780824846831
eISBN:
9780824868185
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780824846831.003.0001
Subject:
Society and Culture, Asian Studies

This introductory essay by is a happy reminiscence by distinguished Nobel Laureate, Hideki Yukawa, about how his early childhood reading of the Zhuangzi and other philosophical canons has been an ... More


Introduction

John Iliopoulos

in The Origin of Mass: Elementary Particles and Fundamental Symmetries

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780198805175
eISBN:
9780191843259
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198805175.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, History of Physics

The discovery of a new elementary particle at LHC, the large hadron collider operating at CERN, has stirred great emotion not only in the scientific community, but also in world media. In this little ... More


Nuclear Physicists at the Crossroads

Roger H. Stuewer

in The Age of Innocence: Nuclear Physics between the First and Second World Wars

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780198827870
eISBN:
9780191866586
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198827870.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics, Nuclear and Plasma Physics

The Nazi Civil Service Law of April 7, 1933, prompted the establishment of refugee organizations to cope with the greatest intellectual migration in history, a difficult task in the Great Depression. ... More


Elementary Measures

in Holding On to Reality: The Nature of Information at the Turn of the Millennium

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226066257
eISBN:
9780226066226
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226066226.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The prominence and precision that the ideas of structure, measure, and reduction to elementary particles had attained in atomic physics in Thomson's time have left a deep impression on the common ... More


More is Different: Broken Symmetry and the Nature of the Hierarchical Structure of Science

P. W. Anderson

in Emergence: Contemporary Readings in Philosophy and Science

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262026215
eISBN:
9780262268011
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262026215.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter discusses the reductionist hypothesis, which remains a topic of controversy among philosophers, but which, the other hand, the great majority of scientists accept without question. The ... More


Enjoy Our Universe: You Have No Other Choice

Alvaro De Rújula

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
February 2020
ISBN:
9780198817802
eISBN:
9780191859366
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198817802.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This book’s title is meant to be interpreted almost verbatim. “Enjoy” is its keyword, motivation, and spirit. Universe refers to all “observable things,” ranging in size from the entire cosmos to ... More


Nuclear and Elementary-Particle Physics

Dmitry Budker and Alexander O. Sushkov

in Physics on Your Feet: Berkeley Graduate Exam Questions: or Ninety Minutes of Shame but a PhD for the Rest of Your Life!

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780199681655
eISBN:
9780191761645
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199681655.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The chapter addresses several important questions, such as nuclear stability: why are some nuclei stable, while others are not (that is, they undergo fission)? How many stable elements can we expect? ... More


A First, Fast Visit to the Universe

Alvaro De Rújula

in Enjoy Our Universe: You Have No Other Choice

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
February 2020
ISBN:
9780198817802
eISBN:
9780191859366
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198817802.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This initial visit to the Universe is fast but not short. The fact that looking far away is looking into the past is recalled. There are a lot of things in our Universe, which are introduced here in ... More


The Existence of Field Theories beyond the Perturbation Expansion

Laurent Baulieu, John Iliopoulos, and Roland Sénéor

in From Classical to Quantum Fields

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780198788393
eISBN:
9780191830310
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198788393.003.0024
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The standard model of fundamental interactions. A brief summary of the phenomenology of weak interactions. The construction of the electroweak theory and its experimental consequences. The deep ... More


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