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Materials:: Old Techniques and New Solutions

Vaclav Smil

in Transforming the Twentieth Century: Volume 2: Technical Innovations and Their Consequences

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780195168754
eISBN:
9780199783601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195168755.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Steel — made from iron in basic oxygen furnaces and electric arc furnaces, and turned into semifinished products by continuous casting — remained the dominant material of the 20th century. Completely ... More


Heroes, Herds and Hysteresis in Technological History: Thomas Edison and ‘The Battle of the Systems’ Reconsidered

Paul A. David

in Understanding Industrial and Corporate Change

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199269426
eISBN:
9780191710179
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199269426.003.0011
Subject:
Business and Management, Organization Studies

This chapter looks at the development of electric lighting and power supply networks in terms of the battles waged around 1887-1892 between proponents of direct and alternative current systems of ... More


Strategy and Structure at Matsushita Group

Mari Sako

in Shifting Boundaries of the Firm: Japanese Company - Japanese Labour

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199268160
eISBN:
9780191708534
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199268160.003.0004
Subject:
Business and Management, International Business

This chapter is a historical case study on management and labour at the Matsushita Group. A Chandlerian framework is applied to analyse the evolution of the multi-divisional structure and spin-offs ... More


The Manufacturers Confer

Asa Briggs

in The History of Broadcasting in the United Kingdom, Volume I: The Birth of Broadcasting

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780192129260
eISBN:
9780191670008
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192129260.003.0008
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History, Cultural History

This chapter focuses on the manufacturers' meetings concerning the formation of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). The first meeting was held in May 1922 at the Institution of Electrical ... More


 Back to Private Power

Louis T. Wells

in Making Foreign Investment Safe: Property Rights and National Sovereignty

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780195310627
eISBN:
9780199783847
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195310627.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

From the mid-1980s, private ownership and foreign investment began to be touted as solutions to many problems of the Third World. Starved of capital for projects they wanted, many officials in ... More


 Paiton's Power: The Cost of Poor Preparation

Louis T. Wells

in Making Foreign Investment Safe: Property Rights and National Sovereignty

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780195310627
eISBN:
9780199783847
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195310627.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

With slow growth in home electricity markets, cheap money, and a go-go atmosphere, foreign investors responded eagerly to the new call of emerging markets. Assurances of property rights added to ... More


 Paiton's Power: A New Contender

Louis T. Wells

in Making Foreign Investment Safe: Property Rights and National Sovereignty

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780195310627
eISBN:
9780199783847
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195310627.003.0009
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

With US government help, the second contender for Paiton I would strike a deal that promised huge profits and few risks. Lacking the kind of technological edge that protected ITT, investors would ... More


ELECTRIC DEFLEXION AND RESONANCE EXPERIMENTS

Norman F. Ramsey

in Molecular Beams

Published in print:
1986
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198520214
eISBN:
9780191706325
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198520214.003.0010
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

Since molecules consist of positive and negative particles, they can have electric dipole moments when oriented in electric fields and a molecular beam can be deflected in a non-uniform electric ... More


NUCLEAR ELECTRIC QUADRUPOLE MOMENTS

Norman F. Ramsey

in Molecular Beams

Published in print:
1986
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198520214
eISBN:
9780191706325
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198520214.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

The magnitude of a nuclear electric quadrupole moment is given by Q=(3z2-r2)Av where the average is taken over the nuclear charges when MI=I. Nuclear quadrupole moments are detected in molecular beam ... More


APPLICATIONS OF THE GAUGE AND FARADAY TRANSFORMATIONS

R. E. Raab and O. L. de Lange

in Multipole Theory in Electromagnetism: Classical, quantum, and symmetry aspects, with applications

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198567271
eISBN:
9780191717970
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567271.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

The transformation theory of the previous chapter is applied to the first two orders of multipole theory (electric dipole and electric quadrupole-magnetic dipole orders) for both non-magnetic and ... More


Electric Counterpoint (1987)

Steve Reich

in Writings on Music 1965–2000: 1965-2000

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195151152
eISBN:
9780199850044
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195151152.003.0039
Subject:
Music, History, American

This chapter presents Reich's thoughts about Electric Counterpoint, which was commissioned by the Brooklyn Academy of Music's Next Wave Festival for the guitarist Pat Metheny. It was composed during ... More


The Changing Village

M.N. Srinivas

in The Remembered Village

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780198077459
eISBN:
9780199081165
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198077459.003.0008
Subject:
Sociology, Urban and Rural Studies

This chapter examines the changes in Rampura after 1948. Among the several technological changes which had occurred between 1948 and 1952 was the availability of electric power. There was also ... More


The Age of Electricity

Vaclav Smil

in Creating the Twentieth Century: Technical Innovations of 1867-1914 and Their Lasting Impact

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780195168747
eISBN:
9780199835522
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195168747.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

No other technical innovation had such a far-reaching impact on modern civilization as the creation of an admirably reliable system of electricity generation, transmission, and conversion. Thomas A. ... More


Rediscovering the Torporific Catfish

Stanley Finger and Marco Piccolino

in The Shocking History of Electric Fishes: From Ancient Epochs to the Birth of Modern Neurophysiology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780195366723
eISBN:
9780199897087
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195366723.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

As shown in the previous chapter, the Renaissance in the West was a period in which the limits of the world were broadened in many ways. Geographically, this was a time marked by great navigations ... More


Jewish Attitudes and Practices

Geoffrey Cantor

in Quakers, Jews, and Science: Religious Responses to Modernity and the Sciences in Britain, 1650-1900

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199276684
eISBN:
9780191603389
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199276684.003.0008
Subject:
Religion, History of Christianity

This chapter opens with a discussion on some of the contexts in which science was deployed intersected with Jewish observance during the 19th century, including calendar-making, the use of electric ... More


Electric Fishes and the Path to Animal Electricity

C. U. M. Smith, Eugenio Frixione, Stanley Finger, and William Clower

in The Animal Spirit Doctrine and the Origins of Neurophysiology

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199766499
eISBN:
9780199950263
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199766499.003.0014
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This chapter analyzes the evidence that was gathered during the last fifty years of the 18th century about the electric charges of certain fishes. It first studies what people thought about these ... More


From Fishes to Frogs and Nerve Electricity

C. U. M. Smith, Eugenio Frixione, Stanley Finger, and William Clower

in The Animal Spirit Doctrine and the Origins of Neurophysiology

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199766499
eISBN:
9780199950263
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199766499.003.0015
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This chapter takes a look at efforts made in the study of the possibility that humans could create and store electricity, just like certain animals. It first introduces Luigi Galvani, who studied the ... More


Alternative approaches

Naomi E. Chayen, John R. Helliwell, and Edward H. Snell

in Macromolecular Crystallization and Crystal Perfection

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199213252
eISBN:
9780191707575
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213252.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

The arsenal of techniques extends to more biophysics‐based approaches to improving crystal quality or minimizing sample, singly or in combination. These include use of gels, microgravity, ... More


The Shocking History of Electric Fishes: From Ancient Epochs to the Birth of Modern Neurophysiology

Stanley Finger and Marco Piccolino

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780195366723
eISBN:
9780199897087
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195366723.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This book looks at how three kinds of strongly electric fishes literally became “electrical,” and how they helped to change the sciences and medicine. These fishes are the flat torpedo rays common to ... More


A Vision of the Firm and the Evolution of Japanese Computer and Communications Firms

Martin Fransman

in Visions of Innovation: The Firm and Japan

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198289357
eISBN:
9780191596261
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198289359.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

A conceptualization (theory) of the firm is developed in order to analyse the evolution of the major Japanese computer and communications companies: Fujitsu, NEC, Hitachi, Toshiba, Mitsubishi ... More


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