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Structural Crystallography and Phase Transitions

M. E. LINES and A. M. GLASS

in Principles and Applications of Ferroelectrics and Related Materials

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780198507789
eISBN:
9780191709944
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198507789.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter discusses structural crystallography and phase transitions. If all atoms in a crystal were exactly at their official lattice sites and there were no order-disorder ambiguity as to the ... More


Scattering

Sönke Johnsen

in The Optics of Life: A Biologist's Guide to Light in Nature

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691139906
eISBN:
9781400840663
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691139906.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter discusses scattering. As mentioned already, optics is primarily photons interacting with electrons, atoms, and molecules. If the energy of the photon matches the difference in energy ... More


Basics of small angle scattering

Dmitri I. Svergun, Michel H. J. Koch, Peter A. Timmins, and Roland P. May

in Small Angle X-Ray and Neutron Scattering from Solutions of Biological Macromolecules

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199639533
eISBN:
9780191747731
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199639533.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

The basic concepts of elastic scattering of X-rays and neutrons are presented in a simple manner, and the differences between the two phenomena are explained. The notions of real and reciprocal ... More


Fundamental transmission electron microscopy

Xiaodong Zou, Sven Hovmöller, and Peter Oleynikov

in Electron Crystallography: Electron Microscopy and Electron Diffraction

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199580200
eISBN:
9780191731211
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199580200.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

Fundamental transmission electron microscopy covers the topics of resolution, electron optics, image recording systems and image distortions and how they can be handled by hardware (Cs-correctors) ... More


Intersubband scattering processes

Jérôme Faist

in Quantum Cascade Lasers

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780198528241
eISBN:
9780191755545
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528241.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter analyzes intrasubband scattering processes, namely spontaneous emission, phonon scattering, and elastic scattering. It then discusses experimental measurements of intersubband lifetime ... More


On the Scattering of Electromagnetic Radiation by Atoms and Molecules

Peter B. Moore

in Visualizing the Invisible: Imaging Techniques for the Structural Biologist

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199767090
eISBN:
9780190267841
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199767090.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

This chapter provides a scientific approach in determining the arrangement of atoms and molecules in living organisms. The use of electromagnetic radiation is therefore introduced. With the use of ... More


Surfaces, interfaces and reflectivity

D. S. Sivia

in Elementary Scattering Theory: For X-ray and Neutron Users

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199228676
eISBN:
9780191775116
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199228676.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Crystallography

This chapter focuses on the case of specular reflectivity as an example of elastic scattering. This type of experiment is used in the study of layered materials, and is a good starting point because ... More


Periodicity, symmetry and crystallography

D. S. Sivia

in Elementary Scattering Theory: For X-ray and Neutron Users

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199228676
eISBN:
9780191775116
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199228676.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Crystallography

This chapter delves into the crystalline state – the one occupying the top position in the hierarchy of the phases of matter. A look at elastic scattering with a consideration of the crystalline ... More


Semiclassical inversion methods

M. S. Child

in Semiclassical Mechanics with Molecular Applications

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2014
ISBN:
9780199672981
eISBN:
9780191783227
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199672981.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

Semiclassical inversion methods rely on phase integral expressions that connect potential energy functions to the various quantization integrals, phase shifts and matrix elements. The forms prove to ... More


Secondary emission and gain

A. G. Wright

in The Photomultiplier Handbook

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
August 2017
ISBN:
9780199565092
eISBN:
9780191747335
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199565092.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

Secondary-electron emission generates gain in conventional vacuum photomultipliers with discrete dynodes. This is a cascade process involving between 6 and 20 elements. Generally, the higher the ... More


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