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The Scholastic Context

Tad M. schmaltz

in Descartes on Causation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195327946
eISBN:
9780199869961
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195327946.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter considers the medieval and scholastic context of Descartes's theory of causation. It starts with a brief account of the origins of occasionalism in medieval Islamic theology, and then ... More


The Soul as an Efficient Cause

Thomas Kjeller Johansen

in The Powers of Aristotle's Soul

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199658435
eISBN:
9780191742231
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199658435.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Aristotle claims in DA II.4 that the soul is a moving cause of the living body with respect to nutrition and perception. While GC insists that the soul in nutrition is the efficient cause, doubts are ... More


Preliminary Study of Aristotle's Causes

Monte Ransome Johnson

in Aristotle on Teleology

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199285303
eISBN:
9780191603143
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199285306.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy

Aristotle considers nature, art, spontaneity, luck, necessity, and intelligence to be causes, and they fit into the four kinds of cause that he distinguishes throughout works on natural philosophy. ... More


Creation's Modalities

Norman Kretzmann

in The Metaphysics of Creation: Aquinas's Natural Theology in Summa contra gentiles II

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199246540
eISBN:
9780191597879
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199246548.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Focuses on the investigation of the question—why would an absolutely perfect being create anything at all? Aquinas's account of a non‐necessitated choice in the act of creating involves a return to ... More


The Next Principle’ The Next Principle’ Metaphysics A 3–4, 984b8–985b22

Gâbor Betegh

in Aristotle's Metaphysics Alpha: Symposium Aristotelicum

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199639984
eISBN:
9780191743337
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199639984.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter examines the way Aristotle describes in A 3–4 (984b8–985a29) the reasons and motivations, which, on his interpretation, lead his predecessors to introduce a new type of principle that ... More


Teleology

J. L. Mackie

in The Cement of the Universe: A Study of Causation

Published in print:
1980
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198246428
eISBN:
9780191597954
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198246420.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter considers the relevance of teleology for an account of causation. Mackie questions whether there are final causes that can be seen to operate in objective processes which are ... More


The Priority of the Objects over the Capacities of the Soul

Thomas Kjeller Johansen

in The Powers of Aristotle's Soul

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199658435
eISBN:
9780191742231
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199658435.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Aristotle says in DA II.4 that the objects are prior in account not only to the capacities of the soul but also to their activities. As the case of nutrition shows, this claim is best understood if ... More


The Importance of Nutrition

Thomas Kjeller Johansen

in The Powers of Aristotle's Soul

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199658435
eISBN:
9780191742231
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199658435.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Nutrition plays a fundamental role in Aristotle's psychology, but not, as is sometimes thought, because it provides the focal or generic notion of life. Rather the nutritive capacity is a ... More


Formal Causes: Definition, Explanation, and Primacy in Socratic and Aristotelian Thought

Michael T. Ferejohn

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199695300
eISBN:
9780191760976
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199695300.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The principal historical thesis of this study is that Aristotle's praise of the historical Socrates for “being the first to pursue universal definitions” is explainable in part by his own attraction ... More


Mind–Body Interactionism

Andrew R. Platt

in One True Cause: Causal Powers, Divine Concurrence, and the Seventeenth-Century Revival of Occasionalism

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
August 2020
ISBN:
9780190941796
eISBN:
9780190941826
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190941796.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Chapter 3 argues that Descartes’ views about mind–body interaction are internally consistent, and compatible with his more general views about causation; thus neither Descartes nor his followers were ... More


Avicenna on Teleology: Final Causation and Goodness: Kara Richardson

Jeffrey K. McDonough

in Teleology: A History

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
July 2020
ISBN:
9780190845711
eISBN:
9780190845742
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190845711.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter examines Avicenna’s theory of final causation in light of two competing interpretations of Aristotelian teleology. According to the good-centered view, Aristotle’s claim that the end is ... More


Body and Mind (Aristotle)

Howard Rachlin

in The Escape of the Mind

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199322350
eISBN:
9780190219536
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199322350.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter claims that the mind stands to behavior as a more abstract pattern (such as a dance) stands to its own particular elements (the steps of the dance). For Aristotle (the chapter argues), ... More


Medieval Criticism

Gary Day

in Literary Criticism: A New History

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780748615636
eISBN:
9780748652099
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748615636.003.0003
Subject:
Literature, Criticism/Theory

The phrase medieval criticism is used throughout this chapter, as it less cumbersome than ‘criticism of the Middle Ages’. The chapter first presents a brief account of the principles of grammatica ... More


Non-Canonical Forms of Aristotelian Demonstration

Michael T. Ferejohn

in Formal Causes: Definition, Explanation, and Primacy in Socratic and Aristotelian Thought

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199695300
eISBN:
9780191760976
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199695300.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter is concerned with two sorts of Aristotelian demonstration that do not conform to the canonical model discussed in Chapter 4. In the first section it is argued that in the case of one of ... More


Responding to the Platonists: Physics I 9

Sarah Broadie

in Aristotle's Physics Alpha: Symposium Aristotelicum

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
July 2019
ISBN:
9780198830993
eISBN:
9780191868948
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198830993.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

This chapter examines Aristotle’s rejection of a Platonist theory positing two principles: Form and the Great and Small. He complains that, under the latter, privation is not distinguished from the ... More


From the Bending of Beams to the Problem of Free Will

Mark Wilson

in Physics Avoidance: and other essays in conceptual strategy

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780198803478
eISBN:
9780191841651
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198803478.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, Philosophy of Language

Leibniz supplied the first differential equation model for an elastic wooden beam and realized that doing so involves a number of methodological oddities that remain with us in modern science, such ... More


Emergence, Downward Causation, and No Brute Facts in Biological Systems

Argyris Arnellos and Charbel El-Hani

in Brute Facts

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
November 2018
ISBN:
9780198758600
eISBN:
9780191818523
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198758600.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This chapter explains emergence in biological organizations through a conception of ontological emergence according to which certain types of dynamical organizations possess irreducible properties ... More


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