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12. Ecological studies

Janet E. Hiller and Anthony J. McMichael

in Design Concepts in Nutritional Epidemiology

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780192627391
eISBN:
9780191723704
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192627391.003.0012
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Ecological studies examine characteristics of population groups rather than individuals. This chapter provides useful examples of how to develop hypotheses using ecological data (based on the ... More


Geographical epidemiology and ecological studies

D. English

in Geographical and Environmental Epidemiology: Methods for Small Area Studies

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780192622358
eISBN:
9780191723636
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192622358.003.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses geographical epidemiology and ecological studies. Geographical epidemiology is defined as the description of spatial patterns of disease incidence and mortality. Ecological ... More


Ecological correlation studies

S. Richardson and C. Monfort

in Spatial Epidemiology: Methods and Applications

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198515326
eISBN:
9780191723667
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515326.003.0011
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter reviews some current issues relating to studies commonly known as ‘ecological studies’, with particular reference to the context of geographical epidemiology. The chapter proceeds as ... More


Geography and migration with special reference to cardiovascular disease

Diana Kuh and Yoav Ben-Shlomo

in A Life Course Approach to Chronic Disease Epidemiology

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198578154
eISBN:
9780191724039
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198578154.003.0006
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter considers two epidemiological approaches to investigating geographic variations in cardiovascular disease (CVD): ecological studies and migrant studies. Ecological studies examine the ... More


Study design

Jørn Olsen and Olga Basso

in Teaching Epidemiology: A guide for teachers in epidemiology, public health and clinical medicine

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199239481
eISBN:
9780191716973
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199239481.003.003
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Epidemiology is defined by its objective: to study determinants of diseases and ill health in human populations. To do so, epidemiologists use experimental and non-experimental methods. This chapter ... More


Analytic Epidemiologic Designs in Obesity Research

Frank B. Hu

in Obesity Epidemiology

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195312911
eISBN:
9780199865260
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195312911.003.0003
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter reviews analytic epidemiologic study designs and research into the consequences and determinants of obesity. These include ecological studies, cross-sectional studies, case-control ... More


Prehistory to the 1880s

Frederic H. Wagner

in Yellowstone's Destabilized Ecosystem: Elk Effects, Science, and Policy Conflict

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195148213
eISBN:
9780199790449
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195148213.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Numerous historical reports of elk numbers by early travelers, when scaled on a temporal basis, show that observations were infrequent, that elk were a much smaller fraction of all ungulate species ... More


Fire and Invasive Plant Species

Robert C. Klinger, Matthew L. Brooks, and John M. Randall

in Fire in California's Ecosystems

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520246058
eISBN:
9780520932272
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520246058.003.0022
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter explores the relationship between fire and invasive species in California from three different perspectives: the general interrelationships between fire and invasive plants, specific ... More


Causes and Effects

J. H. Abramson and Z. H. Abramson

in Making Sense of Data: A Self-Instruction Manual on the Interpretation of Epidemiological Data

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195145250
eISBN:
9780199864775
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195145250.003.0005
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The exercises in this section cover the kinds of epidemiological study used to investigate causal processes, criteria for the appraisal of causal associations, and ways of measuring the impact of ... More


Reflections of the Real World

Eric R. Pianka and Laurie J. Vitt

in Lizards: Windows to the Evolution of Diversity

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520234017
eISBN:
9780520939912
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520234017.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Lizards are ideal organisms for ecological studies, largely because of their basic traits and remarkable diversity. Because lizards are ectotherms, they are often abundant, making them relatively ... More


Elicit Data, Not Prior: On Using Expert Opinion in Ecological Studies

Subhash R. Lele

in The Nature of Scientific Evidence: Statistical, Philosophical, and Empirical Considerations

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226789552
eISBN:
9780226789583
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226789583.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Ecological studies are often hampered by insufficient data on the quantity of interest. Limited data usually lead to a relatively flat likelihood surface that is not very informative. One solution is ... More


Nature beyond Solitude: Notes from the Field

John Seibert Farnsworth

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9781501747281
eISBN:
9781501747298
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9781501747281.001.0001
Subject:
Information Science, Information Science

The field notes taken for this book are not only about nature, but from nature as well. The book lets the reader peer over the author'shoulder as he takes his notes. The reader follows him to a ... More


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