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What Is Ecological Rationality?

Peter M. Todd and Gerd Gigerenzer

in Ecological Rationality: Intelligence in the World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195315448
eISBN:
9780199932429
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315448.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

In our uncertain world, more information and computation do not always yield better decisions—simple heuristics that employ few cues and little processing can often match or beat optimizing ... More


Rational Decision Making in Primates: The Bounded and the Ecological

Jeffrey R. Stevens

in Primate Neuroethology

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195326598
eISBN:
9780199864904
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195326598.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Neuropsychology, Evolutionary Psychology

This chapter reviews decision making behavior in primates. Evidence from both human and nonhuman primates demonstrates that decision makers often fail to behave as predicted by economic principles of ... More


Ecological Rationality: The Normative Study of Heuristics

Gerd Gigerenzer and Peter M. Todd

in Ecological Rationality: Intelligence in the World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195315448
eISBN:
9780199932429
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315448.003.0142
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

Logic and probability theory have been the traditional arbiters of the normative question of how to make good decisions, while psychology has been relegated to studying the descriptive question of ... More


Heuristics: The Foundations of Adaptive Behavior

Gerd Gigerenzer, Ralph Hertwig, and Thorsten Pachur (eds)

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199744282
eISBN:
9780199894727
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199744282.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

How do people make decisions when time is limited, information unreliable, and the future uncertain? Based on the work of Herbert A. Simon and with the help of colleagues around the world, the ... More


The role of emotions in ecological and practical rationality

MATTEO MAMELI

in Emotion, Evolution, and Rationality

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198528975
eISBN:
9780191689604
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528975.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter considers the question of whether emotions are conducive or destructive of rationality. It notes that while there is a developing consensus that emotions are advantageous to ‘ecological’ ... More


Simple Heuristics in a Social World

Ralph Hertwig, Ulrich Hoffrage, and ABC Research Group (eds)

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780195388435
eISBN:
9780199950089
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388435.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This book invites readers to discover the simple heuristics that people use to navigate the complexities and surprises of environments populated with others. The social world is a terrain where ... More


Efficient Cognition Through Limited Search

Gerd Gigerenzer, Anja Dieckmann, and Wolfgang Gaissmaier

in Ecological Rationality: Intelligence in the World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195315448
eISBN:
9780199932429
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315448.003.0075
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

In psychology, there has been a puzzling preference for theories that ignore search and stopping. In judgment and decision-making research, for instance, many approaches, including expected utility ... More


Where the grass is greener: criteria for ecologically rational governance

Lennart J. Lundqvist

in Sweden and Ecological Governance: Straddling the Fence

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
July 2012
ISBN:
9780719069024
eISBN:
9781781700549
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719069024.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Environmental Politics

This chapter examines the extent to which policy measures taken in Sweden to achieve ecologically sustainable development shape and/or rearrange the structures and processes of governance in such a ... More


Simple Heuristics: The Foundations of Adaptive Social Behavior

Ralph Hertwig and Ulrich Hoffrage

in Simple Heuristics in a Social World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780195388435
eISBN:
9780199950089
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388435.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter shows how simple heuristics can be an essential tool for navigating the complexities and vagaries of social environments. The research program on the nature of social rationality ... More


Models of Ecological Rationality: The Recognition Heuristic

Daniel G. Goldstein and Gerd Gigerenzer

in Heuristics: The Foundations of Adaptive Behavior

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199744282
eISBN:
9780199894727
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199744282.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

One view of heuristics is that they are imperfect versions of optimal statistical procedures considered too complicated for ordinary minds to carry out. In contrast, the chapter considers heuristics ... More


When Is the Recognition Heuristic an Adaptive Tool?

Thorsten Pachur, Peter M. Todd, Gerd Gigerenzer, Lael J. Schooler, and Daniel G. Goldstein

in Ecological Rationality: Intelligence in the World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195315448
eISBN:
9780199932429
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315448.003.0035
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

This chapter reviews research addressing four key aspects of the recognition heuristic: (a) that recognition is often an ecologically valid cue; (b) that people often follow recognition when making ... More


Cognitive Paternalism

F. H. Buckley

in Fair Governance: Paternalism and Perfectionism

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195341263
eISBN:
9780199866892
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195341263.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law

Cognitive paternalism would impeach choices which are misshaped by our judgment heuristics, instincts, or emotions. An important empirical literature at the border of psychology and economics suggest ... More


From Disintegrated Architectures of Cognition to an Integrated Heuristic Toolbox

Peter M. Todd and Lael J. Schooler

in Integrated Models of Cognitive Systems

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195189193
eISBN:
9780199847457
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195189193.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Models and Architectures

This chapter demonstrates how grand unified theories of cognition can be combined with the idea that the mind is a collection of disparate simple mechanisms. It first describes the “adaptive toolbox” ... More


Rationality: Why Social Context Matters

Gerd Gigerenzer

in Adaptive Thinking: Rationality in the Real World

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195153729
eISBN:
9780199849222
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195153729.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Social rationality is a specific form of ecological rationality, one in which the environment consists of other humans. The program of social rationality explains human judgment and decision making ... More


Ecological Rationality and Evolutionary Medicine: A Bridge to Medical Education

Shabnam Mousavi and Jay Schulkin

in Integrating Evolutionary Biology into Medical Education: for maternal and child healthcare students, clinicians, and scientists

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
February 2020
ISBN:
9780198814153
eISBN:
9780191851803
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198814153.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Developmental Biology

A notion of rationality represents a structure that can be used to explain, evaluate, and recommend a certain course of action. Full rationality, independent of context, builds such a structure based ... More


The Lives of Others: Social Rationality in Animals

Jeffrey R. Stevens and Andrew J. King

in Simple Heuristics in a Social World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780195388435
eISBN:
9780199950089
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388435.003.0015
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Why do animals attend to the lives of others? Social situations have provided important pressures in the evolution of behavior. In fact, some have argued that the complexities of social life require ... More


Simple Heuristics and Rules of Thumb: Where Psychologists and Behavioural Biologists Might Meet

John M.C. Hutchinson and Gerd Gigerenzer

in Heuristics: The Foundations of Adaptive Behavior

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199744282
eISBN:
9780199894727
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199744282.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

The Centre for Adaptive Behavior and Cognition (ABC) has hypothesized that much human decision making can be described by simple algorithmic process models (heuristics). This chapter explains this ... More


Kilograms Matter: Rational Analysis, Ecological Rationality, and Closed-Loop Modeling of Interactive Cognition and Behavior

Michael D. Byrne, Alex Kirlik, and Chris S. Fick

in Adaptive Perspectives on Human–Technology Interaction: Methods and Models for Cognitive Engineering and Human-Computer Interaction

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195374827
eISBN:
9780199847693
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195374827.003.0023
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter provides an explanation on rational analysis, ecological rationality, and closed-loop modeling of interactive cognition and behavior. It describes the results of a study in which dynamic ... More


A Small Piece of the Puzzle

Julia Staffel

in Unsettled Thoughts: A Theory of Degrees of Rationality

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
February 2020
ISBN:
9780198833710
eISBN:
9780191872136
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198833710.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Chapter 8 examines how the proposed view of rationality fits in with other related approaches to theorizing about rationality. The view is best seen as a small piece of a bigger puzzle, and it is ... More


The Fast and Frugal Heuristics School

Mark Kelman

in The Heuristics Debate

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199755608
eISBN:
9780199895236
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199755608.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law

Fast and frugal school researchers emphasize that evolutionary pressures guarantee that we will generally do a good job making “ecologically rational” choices, using inborn capacities to process ... More


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