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Efficient Retirement Financial Strategies

William F. Sharpe, Jason S. Scott, and John G. Watson

in Recalibrating Retirement Spending and Saving

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199549108
eISBN:
9780191720734
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199549108.003.0009
Subject:
Business and Management, Pensions and Pension Management

Today's retirees face the daunting task of determining appropriate investment and spending strategies for their accumulated savings. Financial economists have addressed their problem using an ... More


Payments and Social Ties

Viviana A. Zelizer

in Economic Lives: How Culture Shapes the Economy

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691139364
eISBN:
9781400836253
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691139364.003.0008
Subject:
Sociology, Economic Sociology

This chapter extends the analysis of earmarking by emphasizing the distinctions between three categories of monetary payments: gifts, entitlements, and compensation. It documents two points that ... More


Domestic Constituencies Speak: The End of Fixed Parity and the Rise of Development Lending

Kathryn C. Lavelle

in Legislating International Organization: The US Congress, the IMF, and the World Bank

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199765348
eISBN:
9780199918959
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199765348.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter examines the development stage of the relationship between the IMF and World Bank, when the work of both converged on lending in developing countries. The primary exogenous shock came ... More


De-biasing Democracy

John O. McGinnis

in Accelerating Democracy: Transforming Governance Through Technology

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691151021
eISBN:
9781400845453
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691151021.003.0010
Subject:
Political Science, Public Policy

This chapter discusses how democracy can adopt reforms, including those based on new information technology, to combat bias more effectively. These include reinforcing majority rule and ... More


Hypothecation

Julian Le Grand

in Motivation, Agency, and Public Policy: Of Knights and Knaves, Pawns and Queens

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
April 2004
ISBN:
9780199266999
eISBN:
9780191600869
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199266999.003.0011
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

Considers increasing individual citizens’ control over the fiscal system through hypothecation, or the earmarking of particular tax revenues for specific uses. It argues that the idea should be ... More


The Traditional Framework of Indirect Taxes

Hiromitsu Ishi

in The Japanese Tax System

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199242566
eISBN:
9780191596452
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199242569.003.0014
Subject:
Economics and Finance, South and East Asia

Examines indirect tax reform movements in the late 1980s before the introduction of a broad‐based consumption tax: VAT. Needless to say, the adoption of VAT had a close bearing upon the changes in ... More


Enhancing Research Resources

Dean O. Smith

in Managing the Research University

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199793259
eISBN:
9780199896813
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199793259.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic Systems

Research capacity refers to an institution’s resource base that supports its research endeavors. Most capacity building efforts concentrate on increasing research expenditures. This involves adding ... More


Politics of “Independence”: Position of Special Procedures within the United Nations

Elvira Domínguez-Redondo

in In Defense of Politicization of Human Rights: The UN Special Procedures

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
July 2020
ISBN:
9780197516706
eISBN:
9780197516737
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197516706.003.0007
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

Multidimensional factors influence the real or perceived independence of mandate holders. This chapter explains the changes that have superficially improved the balance in the gender and geographical ... More


Economics and the Social Meaning of Money

Jonathan Morduch

in Money Talks: Explaining How Money Really Works

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780691168685
eISBN:
9781400885268
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691168685.003.0002
Subject:
Sociology, Economic Sociology

This chapter explains why nonfungibility remains “a hard sell” for traditional economists but then demonstrates how and why recognizing monetary differentiations advances our understanding of ... More


The Social Meaning of Credit, Value, and Finance

Bruce G. Carruthers

in Money Talks: Explaining How Money Really Works

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780691168685
eISBN:
9781400885268
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691168685.003.0005
Subject:
Sociology, Economic Sociology

This chapter analyzes monetary differentiation within formal organizations, banks, and other financial institutions. It demonstrates how, despite the advantages of liquidity, organizational budgeting ... More


Distributive and Partisan Politics in the U.S. Senate: An Exploration of Earmarks

Michael H. Crespin and Charles J. Finocchiaro

in Why Not Parties?: Party Effects in the United States Senate

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226534879
eISBN:
9780226534947
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226534947.003.0012
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This chapter examines whether and to what degree the distribution of pork-barrel project dollars across states is biased toward the majority party. It begins with a review of the literature on ... More


Infrastructure Financing in Medieval Europe: On and beyond ‘Roman Ways’

Giuseppe De Luca

in Infrastructure Finance in Europe: Insights into the History of Water, Transport, and Telecommunications

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780198713418
eISBN:
9780191781841
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198713418.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

The foremost heritage the Roman world left the Middle Ages and its heirs no longer seems to be an eternal, unaltered road network. Rather, our great inheritance is—as this chapter shows—first, the ... More


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