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On the Cognitive Bases of Knowledge Ascriptions

Mikkel Gerken

in Knowledge Ascriptions

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199693702
eISBN:
9780191741265
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199693702.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The chapter develops an epistemic focal bias account of certain patterns of judgments about knowledge ascriptions by integrating it with a general dual process framework of human cognition. According ... More


Ontogeny, Autism, Empathy, and Evolution

Alvin I. Goldman

in Simulating Minds: The Philosophy, Psychology, and Neuroscience of Mindreading

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780195138924
eISBN:
9780199786480
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195138929.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

A wide variety of well-studied phenomena associated with mindreading are surveyed to probe the consistency of what is known about them with our version of simulation theory. These phenomena include ... More


Explaining Cultural and Sex Differences in Responses to Supportive Communication: A Dual-Process Approach

Brant R. Burleson and Lisa K. Hanasono

in Support Processes in Intimate Relationships

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780195380170
eISBN:
9780199864355
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195380170.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Health Psychology, Clinical Psychology

Men and women, as well as members of different cultural groups, respond somewhat differently to the social and emotional support they receive. In particular, women discriminate somewhat more finely ... More


Multi‐Process Theories

Edouard Machery

in Doing without Concepts

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195306880
eISBN:
9780199867950
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195306880.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter investigates the contours of those theories that assume that a single cognitive competence, for instance, inductive reasoning, is underwritten by several cognitive processes (a branch of ... More


The magical number two, plus or minus: Dual-process theory as a theory of cognitive kinds

Richard Samuels

in In two minds: Dual processes and beyond

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199230167
eISBN:
9780191696442
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230167.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter considers the question of whether there is some general, distinctive, and plausible dual-process thesis about cognition. It argues that there is such an account, called the type version ... More


Cognitive and social cognitive development: Dual-process research and theory

Paul A. Klaczynski

in In two minds: Dual processes and beyond

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199230167
eISBN:
9780191696442
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230167.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter describes some counterintuitive age trends, presents a developmental dual-process theory that affords a more parsimonious interpretation of these trends than offered by traditional ... More


Multi‐system Moral Psychology

Fiery Cushman, Liane Young, and Joshua D. Greene

in The Moral Psychology Handbook

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199582143
eISBN:
9780191594496
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199582143.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter argues for a synthesis of two recent projects in moral psychology. One has proposed a division between “emotional” versus “cognitive” moral judgments, while another has proposed a ... More


The Automaticity Juggernaut—or, Are We Automatons After All?

John F Kihlstrom

in Are We Free?: Psychology and Free Will

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195189636
eISBN:
9780199868605
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195189636.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

The distinction between automatic and controlled cognitive processes was imported into social psychology, and formed the basis for a new generation of “dual-process” theories of social cognition and ... More


Dual-Process Theory and the Great Rationality Debate

Keith E. Stanovich

in Rationality and the Reflective Mind

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195341140
eISBN:
9780199894307
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195341140.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Cognitive Models and Architectures

This chapter begins with a discussion of Great Rationality Debate in cognitive science—the debate about how much irrationality to attribute to human cognition—detailing the contrasting positions of ... More


Rationality and the Reflective Mind

Keith Stanovich

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195341140
eISBN:
9780199894307
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195341140.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Cognitive Models and Architectures

This book attempts to resolve the Great Rationality Debate in cognitive science—the debate about how much irrationality to ascribe to human cognition. It shows how the insights of dual-process theory ... More


In two minds: Dual processes and beyond

Jonathan Evans and Keith Frankish (eds)

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199230167
eISBN:
9780191696442
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230167.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This book explores the idea that we have two minds – one being automatic, unconscious, and fast, the other controlled, conscious, and slow. In recent years, there has been great interest in so-called ... More


Thinking across cultures: Implications for dual processes

Emma E. Buchtel and Ara Norenzayan

in In two minds: Dual processes and beyond

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199230167
eISBN:
9780191696442
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230167.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter examines how analytic and holistic thinking have been defined by cultural psychologists, and briefly reviews the studies in this new tradition. It suggests that holistic and analytic ... More


Anticipating the Future: Temporal Regimes of Meteorological Decision Making

Phaedra Daipha

in Masters of Uncertainty: Weather Forecasters and the Quest for Ground Truth

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780226298542
eISBN:
9780226298719
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226298719.003.0006
Subject:
Sociology, Science, Technology and Environment

Turning to the temporal dimensions of meteorological decision-making, this chapter identifies two principles underlying the logic of weather forecasting practice: risk and scale. The former rests on ... More


More Theoretical Accounts

Raymond S. Nickerson

in Conditional Reasoning: The Unruly Syntactics, Semantics, Thematics, and Pragmatics of "If"

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780190202996
eISBN:
9780190249137
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190202996.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter continues the review of theoretical accounts of conditional reasoning, focusing first on information-theoretic accounts and then on dual-process, or dual-system, accounts. None of the ... More


Distinguishing the reflective, algorithmic, and autonomous minds: Is it time for a tri-process theory?

Keith E. Stanovich

in In two minds: Dual processes and beyond

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199230167
eISBN:
9780191696442
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230167.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Building upon work which considers the implications dual-process theory for the great rationality debate in cognitive science, this chapter advances that discussion, first by discussing additions and ... More


In two minds about rationality?

Clare Saunders and David E. Over

in In two minds: Dual processes and beyond

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199230167
eISBN:
9780191696442
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230167.003.0014
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Dual-process theory states that the mind contains two different types of mental processes or systems, but there is much disagreement about precisely what the two processes or systems are, and how ... More


‘If’ and the problem of hypothetical thought

Jonathan St B T Evans and David E Over

in If

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198525134
eISBN:
9780191728174
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525134.003.01
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology

This chapter begins with a brief discussion of the importance of the word ‘if’ in the English language, and goes on to introduce conditionals. The purpose of the book is then outlined, which is to ... More


Distinguishing Between Prediction and Influence: Multiple Processes Underlying Attitude-Behavior Consistency

Leandre R. Fabrigar, Duane T. Wegener, and Tara K. MacDonald

in Then A Miracle Occurs: Focusing on Behavior in Social Psychological Theory and Research

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195377798
eISBN:
9780199864522
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195377798.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology, Clinical Psychology

The authors present a general framework for organizing the moderators of the attitude-behavior relationships suggested in the literature, focusing on several central distinctions. First, they ... More


Towards a metacognitive dual process theory of conditional reasoning

Valerie A. Thompson

in Cognition and Conditionals: Probability and Logic in Human Thinking

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199233298
eISBN:
9780191696602
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199233298.003.0018
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Dual-Process Theories (DPT) have emerged as the dominant theoretical framework for human reasoning and decision making. These theories commonly assume that reasoning and decision making are ... More


Why We Should Reject Transhumanists’ Entire Lens on the Mind and Brain

Susan B. Levin

in Posthuman Bliss?: The Failed Promise of Transhumanism

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9780190051495
eISBN:
9780190051525
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190051495.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

“Basic-emotion” and “dual-process” theorists, joined by transhumanists, view the mind as a set of compartments whose functionality is explained by dedicated areas or systems in the brain. The two ... More


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